Customer Product Management

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Customer Product Management is the procedure for determining and meeting demand for products and services in the division of the Federal Ministry of Defense (BMVg) of the Federal Republic of Germany .

History and Development

The CPM, first issued as "CPM 2001", then newly enacted in 2004 as "CPM 2010", regulates the procedure, responsibilities and processes for the coverage of material and services, the development and procurement of defense material for the Bundeswehr . It was developed under Federal Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping and replaced the General Umdrucke 220 (AU 220, "Procedural Regulations for the Development and Procurement of Defense Material" (EBMat)) and 250 (AU 250, "Development Standard for Federal IT Systems: Procedure Model) ") from.

The amended CPM was issued on November 12, 2012 (CPM (nov.)). This amendment was necessary due to the conception of the new equipment and use process of the Bundeswehr as part of the realignment of the Bundeswehr .

In the report of the Federal Armed Forces Structural Commission of October 2010, a position was also given on the equipment of the German Armed Forces. Here the commission came to the conclusion:

"Most of the time, the armed forces do not receive the equipment they require, neither on time nor on budget."

The Commission has therefore proposed extensive changes to the organizational structure, whereby all duplicate structures should be avoided by combining the activities in an armaments agency.

The separation of the Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB) and the Federal Office for Information Management and Information Technology of the Bundeswehr (IT OfficeBw) was particularly criticized . In addition, the formation of integrated project teams (IPT) and close cooperation with industry were suggested. Such integrated project teams are also used in France and the UK. In the industrial sector, one would speak of taking account of internal customers if successive work processes are to be improved.

The Ministry of Defense has partially taken into account the Commission's proposals, but has ensured that the Bundeswehr administration and the military departments remain separate.

So that was the Federal Office equipment, information technology and use of the Bundeswehr (BAAINBw) from the BWB and the Bundeswehr IT Office created, and for the "Integrated Planning Process", the first claims on a project arise from the analysis phase, which is planning Office of the Bundeswehr (PlgABw) was founded in 2012 as a subordinate agency.

The Ministry of Defense has introduced some changes to the processes that meet the requirements of a modern quality management system. These include the quality gates, which can be used for specific projects in the early phases for quality control and quality testing, the corrective measures for which a CPM steering committee is available, and error and change management based on an existing standard.

However, there is still no result document for quality assurance planning in the CPM, in which the quality gates for the project in question are specified. The quality assurance planning is only documented in quality assurance plans after the contract has been signed with the industry in accordance with NATO standards (AQAP), if it is required in the contract or if the company itself considers it sensible.

In the CPM there are also no special regulations for sample exams.


The CPM nov. is the internal departmental framework for skills-oriented needs assessment, timely and economical requirements coverage with ready-to-use products and services as well as their efficient use.

The overriding goal is to combine quality, efficiency and flexibility with clear responsibilities, clear decision-making powers and reduced interfaces, in particular to optimally support the armed forces.

Integrated project teams (IPT) are provided throughout the life cycle of products under the direction of the responsible person.

The CPM documents are used to control the process, and they must therefore be drafted in such a way that economical solutions are possible and the opportunities of the competitive market are used in tenders.

A joint approach with international partners should be sought.

Quality gates can be used in all phases, especially in the analysis phase of the CPM, to systematize and specify standards for all project participants. The project manager is given the "V-Modell XT (Change Control Board)" for error / change management. The CPM does not specify any standards for the technical specifications including the verification tests. They have to be negotiated with the industry on a project-specific basis. Here, the CPM differs significantly from the practice in the USA, where project-independent standards are used much more in order to avoid errors.

Phases and CPM documents


The CPM basically divides an armaments project into three phases:

  • the analysis phase
  • Stage 1, in which the Bundeswehr Planning Office (PlgABw) creates the CPM document "Capability Gaps and Functional Requirements (FFF)" or "Capability Gaps and Functional Requirements (Immediate Initiative) (FFF (S))"
  • Stage 2, in which material alternative solutions are developed and selected.
  • the implementation phase in which the user / operator is provided with suitable products and services in a timely and ready-to-use manner.
  • the usage phase in which the finished product is delivered to the military consumer and is used by him until it is discarded.

All measures to maintain and restore operational readiness as well as operational readiness and readiness for use must be carried out so that the intended use is achieved in accordance with the specifications.

CPM documents

Results, essential decisions and the further procedure are laid down in CPM documents. Documents from partners with comparable content can be declared CPM documents (cover sheet procedure).

CPM documents are:

  • Capability gap and functional requirement (FFF) or capability gap and functional requirement (immediate initiative) [FFF (S)]
  • Selection decision (AWE)
  • Target agreement (ZV) or project order (PA)
  • Permission for use (GeNu).


The needs assessment is part of the integrated planning process in the planning office of the Bundeswehr (PlgABw). The integrated planning process links the previously separate main processes of armed forces planning, accounting and controlling. This also includes skills management.

If a material solution to close a capability gap comes into question (planning category armament and possibly operation), integrated project teams (IPT) are set up under the direction of the PlgABw.

The IPT includes authorized representatives of the Federal Office for Equipment, Information Technology and Use of the Bundeswehr (BAAINBw) as well as the potential users / operators and, as far as legally possible, representatives of the industry.

Analysis phase

Analysis phase stage 1

In the Stage 1 analysis phase , the IPT, under the direction of PlgABw, develops the CPM document “Capability Gaps and Functional Requirements” (FFF). The authorized representative of the BAAINBw contributes the technical and economic expertise including findings from defense research and technology (R&T) and pays attention to a. Make sure that the FFF is formulated in such a way that several sensible proposed solutions can be derived from it in Part 2 of the analysis phase. The head of the IPT is solely responsible and submits the FFF to the GenInsp for approval via the planning department.

A co-signing of the FFF by other organizational areas is expressly not intended. This ensures that the time for the creation and the content of an FFF is the sole responsibility of the inspector general.

Analysis phase stage 2

The approval of the FFF now initiates the equipment and use process. With her, responsibility now rests in the area of ​​equipment, information technology and use (AIN) from the creation of proposed solutions to the recycling of the imported product. Against this background, the management of the IPT also changes once from the representative of the PlgABw to the representative of the BAAINBw in the second part of the analysis phase . The previous change of responsibility, both after completion of the analysis phase and after completion of the implementation phase, no longer takes place: There is continuous responsibility without loss of “know-how” over the entire life cycle of the product.

The AIN department head commissions the president of the BAAINBw in the subordinate area to develop several proposed solutions (basically at least three proposed solutions). These range from the complete fulfillment of the requirements to the purchase of commercial products. The inspector general only chooses between the proposed solutions. This ensures that the AIN organizational unit is solely responsible for creating graduated, sensible proposed solutions. With the documented decision of the GenInsp, the selected proposed solution is raised as a "selection decision" (AWE). This is the budgetary document for the implementation and use.

Realization phase

The AIN department head instructs the President BAAINBw to tender the selected proposed solution, taking into account public procurement law . The work will be continued in the IPT under the direction of the project manager. The IPT includes authorized representatives of future users / operators and representatives of the contractor (industry).

On the basis of a final negotiated contract, the AIN department head concludes a target agreement (ZV) with the BAAINBw president on implementation and use. The ZV is a mutual commitment in which the AIN department head guarantees the resources within the scope of his area of ​​responsibility and the BAAINBw president guarantees the performance of the service within the cost and time frame according to AWE. The ministerial control takes place via the ZV as part of the new project controlling.

On the basis of the results of the verification, which is included in the operational test, the project manager issues the “approval for use” (GeNu). If the operational test can be carried out successfully against the standard of the operational operational scenarios defined in the FFF and their refinement in the AWE, the user / operator must declare their willingness to take over.

The implementation phase is completed with delivery of the last copy. This ends the implementation responsibility of the PL. At the same time, he assumes responsibility for usage control.

Usage phase

The BAAINBw project manager remains responsible for all management tasks to be carried out that focus on maintaining and restoring the operational readiness of imported products. This also includes the initiation and coordination of measures for the implementation of product changes as well as the initiation of subsequent, supplementary and replacement purchases. The BAAINBw also gains knowledge from usage management in the context of its material responsibility for maintaining operational readiness and can derive any necessary action from this.

In order to be able to accomplish this, the tasks and expertise of the previous user managers will be relocated from the armed forces to the BAAINBw as part of the realignment of the Bundeswehr (around 1,100 predominantly military posts). In the IT-AmtBw, user control tasks were already performed earlier and have now also been relocated to the BAAINBw with the tasks of meeting IT requirements.


Individual evidence

  1. Diploma thesis "Analysis of the V-Modell as a development standard for IT systems of the federal government - a concept for incremental software development", page 78 ( Memento of the original from August 22, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.3 MB)  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. ^ Individual project "Armament, Use, IT" for the realignment of the Bundeswehr