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The adverb ibid (abbreviation: ibid. , Also . Ibid ), and the same place , has the meaning "exactly right there." It is used in particular in scientific papers when references are made to citations in the reference to sources or literature , when reference is made several times to the same publication that has already been mentioned immediately. It is also used in biographies if the place of birth and place of death are identical. It is also used in the official language to avoid repeating the location.

Ibid is synonymous with Latin ibidem (abbreviated ibid. , Ibd. , Ib. ). Another Latin equivalent is op. Cit. (Latin opere citato , German in the work cited).


In the citation written sources ibid , the German equivalent of the in other languages still common Latin ibidem (Abbreviation ibid. , Ibid. , Ibid. ), Which, especially in the humanities was needed for such a reference back. For the sake of clarity and to avoid turning back, Norbert Franck and Joachim Stary recommend not starting the first footnote of a page with the abbreviation “ibid.”, But with a separate bibliographical reference. Only the following footnotes on this page should, if they refer to the same source, contain the abbreviated information by means of ibid or ibid . If a proof refers to exactly the same place as a previous one, ibid. Stands alone. If a reference refers to a different place in the same work as the previous one, ibid. Together with the page number of the place, e.g. B. "ibid., P. 39".

In biographies, the expression is common when the person portrayed died in the same place where they were born, e.g. B. "Martin Luther (born November 10, 1483 in Eisleben; † February 18, 1546 ibid)". The expression is very often found in church registers , death certificates and in genealogy . Sometimes the term is in addition there also used in the bureaucratic official language, for example, in judgments or notarial acts such. For example: "Ms. Rita Mustermann, residing in Berliner Straße 1, 00000 Musterstadt, represents her underage son Fritz Mustermann, residing there [...]."

Also in appointments with the same start and end location, ibid is used, e.g. B. "We meet for a canoe tour at location X. The common end is there."

Similar terms

loc. cit. / op. cit.

The abbreviation a also serves as a repeated source reference to a previously verified work . a. O. ("at the specified location", "at the specified location"), possibly supplemented by page numbers. The Latin equivalent is op. Cit. ( opere citato “in the cited work”).

Example: Harry M. Johnson: Sociology. A Systematic Introduction . Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York 1960, pp. 63 f. → Johnson, op. a. Cit., P. 71 f.

Evidence by means of a. a. O. is found mainly in older publications in the humanities. In contrast to ibid. , Which only refers to directly preceding evidence, a. a. O. also used without prior evidence from the same source. The evidence to which the statement a. a. O. refers, can therefore u. U. are very far back and must first be laboriously searched for. This makes it difficult to consult the full bibliography and verify evidence. Due to the increased demands on the accuracy and usability of evidence in scientific literature, the use of a. a. O. advised against. In the case of multiple references to the same work, an abbreviated reference is used instead, which usually contains key terms from the title and ideally a reference to the footnote in which the first, complete reference can be found.

Example from a humanities context:

1. Stefan George: Return. In: ders .: poems. Stuttgart: Reclam 1960, p. 18. [original, complete reference to this source]
2. Ibid. [Evidence of the same text, i.e. H. of the poem documented in Note 1]
3. Stefan George: body and soul. In: ibid., P. 63 f. [Proof of another poem from the same book source as the one shown in Notes 1 and 2]
4. Frank Wedekind: Lulu. Edited by Erhard Weidl. Stuttgart: Reclam 1989, p. 41. [original, complete evidence of another source]
5. George, Leib und Seele (as note 3), p. 64. [Brief evidence of a passage in the poem that was identified in note 3]
6. Wedekind, loc. a. Cit., P. 133. [older verification procedure in which the original complete verification of the source is not directly preceded and may have to be sought at a remote location]

Example from an English-language scientific context:

4. ↑ R. Poirer, Learning Physics (NY: Academic, 1993), p. 4th
5. ↑ Ibid. , p. 9.
6. ↑ ​​T. Eliot, Astrophysics (Berlin: Springer, 1989), p. 141.
7. ↑ R. Builder, J Phys Chem 20 (3) 1991: 1654-57.
8. ↑ Eliot, op. Cit. , p.148.

Ditto / a detto

The word ditto does a similar job. It stands for “likewise, the same, likewise” in the sense of “the same as mentioned above (or above in the text)”. Example:

  • “1 kg of cherries, washed, drained and pitted
  • 2 kg of plums, ditto
  • 500 g apricots, ditto "

Ditto is also often abbreviated as dto .

Dito is borrowed from the French dito , which itself comes from the Italian ditto , a variant of detto , the past participle of the Italian verb dire (to say). In commercial parlance, this was adopted as a detto , which means “as I said” in the sense of “the same, the same”. The Italian dire goes back to the Latin dicere .


In tables and lists, in which entries are often identical to one another, a shorthand form with a quotation mark (") is used synonymously for the use of ditto . This is sometimes also written on the left and right with a horizontal em dash (-" -). For the exact use and the typographical rules, see also the article underpass marks .

Surname Age Hair color
Ferdinand Huber 29 years black
Axel Kramer 27 years "
Bernd Klotz " brown
Hans Schmitt " "
Bianca Schulz 17 years blond
Natalie Maier " red


  • Klaus Poenicke: Duden, How do you write scientific papers? A guide from the 1st semester. to doctorate. 1988, ISBN 3-411-02751-7 .
  • Hans-Otto Schenk: The thesis. A guide for economists and social scientists. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-8252-2657-3 , p. 88.

Web links

Wiktionary: ibid  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. up there on duden.de, accessed on 24 July 2011th
  2. ibid on duden.de, accessed on July 24, 2011.
  3. ibidem on duden.de, accessed on July 24, 2011.
  4. techniken-wissenschaftlichen-arbeitens.de
  5. design.caltech.edu ( Memento of the original from March 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / design.caltech.edu