from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Escherichia coli by secondary electron microscope

Escherichia coli by secondary electron microscope

Domain : Bacteria (bacteria)
Department : Proteobacteria
Class : Gammaproteobacteria
Order : Enterobacterales
Family : Enterobacteriaceae
Genre : Escherichia
Scientific name
Castellani & Chalmers 1919

Escherichia is a genus of gram-negative rod- shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae familywith active movement ( peritrich flagellated) or without flagellated without active movement. The genus was named after the German pediatrician Theodor Escherich . The genus Escherichia is oxidase-negative and, in contrast to the very similar genus Enterobacter ,shows itself to be negative in the Voges-Proskauer reaction . The most important representative is Escherichia coli .


The members of the genus Escherichia are chemoorganotroph , i. In other words, they break down organic substances to generate energy. They are facultatively anaerobic : if oxygen is present, they have an oxidative energy metabolism , they oxidize the organic substances to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water; if no oxygen is available, i.e. under anoxic conditions, they use mixed acid fermentation as an energy metabolic pathway, with large amounts of acids ( acetic acid , lactic acid and succinic acid ) being produced as end products.

Other genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family , such as B. Enterobacter , use the 2,3-butanediol fermentation for energy production under anoxic conditions . The end products here are mainly the alcohol 2,3-butanediol and CO 2 in large amounts , and only small amounts u. a. different acids. The 2,3-butanediol fermentation is proven by the Voges-Proskauer test for acetoin , an intermediate product of this fermentation. This test is used to differentiate butanol fermentation from mixed acid fermentation and thus to differentiate Enterobacteriaceae.


  • E. albertii Huys et al. 2003
  • E. Blattae Burgess et al. 1973
  • E. coli (Migula 1895) Castellani & Chalmers 1919
  • E. fergusonii Farmer et al. 1985
  • E. Hermannii Brenner et al. 1983
  • E. senegalensis
  • E. vulneris Brenner et al. 1983
  • E. sp. (Various)

Web links

Wiktionary: Escherichia  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations