The trigeminal ganglion , also known as the semilunare ganglion or ganglion Gasseri - named after the descriptor Johann Lorenz Gasser , an Austrian anatomist (1723–1765) - is a crescent-shaped sensory ganglion ("nerve node") of the fifth cranial nerve , the trigeminal nerve .
The ganglion described before Gasser, for example by Giovanni Domenico Santorini , lies on the inside of the petrous pyramid . It contains the nerve cell bodies of afferent neurons of the cranial nerve V, which represent pseudounipolar nerve cells with different degrees of myelination . The trigeminal ganglion thus corresponds to the sensitive spinal ganglion of a spinal cord nerve . The blood vessels are supplied via the accessory meningeal artery .
The trigeminal ganglion is clinically important, especially in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia , since by switching off the corresponding nerves - today mostly by means of percutaneous thermocoagulation - a significant pain relief can often be achieved. This is possible because the pain-conducting C-fibers are less strongly myelinated and can therefore be switched off more easily. In short anesthesia , the ganglion is sought out and exposed to targeted thermal stimuli, whereby the C-fibers perish and the conduction of pain is interrupted.