Carolingian coin system

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Carolingian Denarius (Denier)

The Carolingian coin system (also known as the Carolingian coin order ) was the definition of the issue of coins by Emperor Charlemagne at the end of the 8th century . Charles' coinage system influenced coinage in Europe for several centuries. The coin reform carried out by Charlemagne around 793/794 was of decisive importance for medieval monetary systems in Germany. Because gold could almost only be obtained through long-distance trade and there were enough silver deposits north of the Alps in Europe , he introduced a pure silver currency . The basic weight of the coin became the pound from which 240 pfennigs were struck. The Carolingian pound weighed about 406½ grams .

The penny was the most important coin of the Middle Ages . The pound was a unit of weight and with this system also became a unit of currency. Like the shilling , the pound was not minted for a long time, but only used as an invoice coin . One shilling was worth exactly twelve pfennigs.

This system exists in several languages:

German : 240 pfennigs   =   20 shillings   =   1 pound
French :    240 deniers   =   20 sols (sous)   =   1 livre
English : 240 pence   =   20 shillings   =   1 pound
Latin : 240 denarii *   =   20 solidi   =   1 Libra
Italian : 240 denari *   =   20 Soldi   =   1 lira

 * Plural of denarius (denarius)

In the UK , this system lasted until the 1971 decimalization . After the abbreviations derived from Latin ( l ibra, s olidus, d enarius) it was also called the "£ sd system". To this day, the Carolingian coin system is officially the basis of the currency of the Order of Malta . However, since the order no longer has its own national territory, the currency no longer has any real meaning.

The pound as a silver weight was ousted by the mark from the 11th century .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Helmut Kahnt, Bernd Knorr: Old dimensions, coins and weights. A lexicon. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1986, licensed edition Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-411-02148-9 , p. 385.