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Peat moss (Sphagnum sp.)

Peat moss ( Sphagnum sp.)

without rank: Chloroplastida
without rank: Charophyta
without rank: Phragmoplastophyta
without rank: Streptophyta
Empire : Plants (Plantae)
Department : Moss
Scientific name

The mosses (Bryophyta) are a division of plants and one of the three groups that are combined as mosses .



Life cycle of the moss.

The protonema consists of thin, multicellular threads. The gametophyte is always divided into stems and leaflets. Some of the stems have simple guiding elements ( leptoids and hydroids ). The leaflets are screwed, only rarely are they three or two lines. As a rule, the leaflets are not dorsiventral . Often they have a multilayered central rib. The leaflets are never multi-pointed; the lamina cells are round ( parenchymatic ) or elongated ( prosenchymatic ). The rhizoids are multicellular, branched and provided with sloping transverse walls. Oil bodies are never found in the Bryophytina.


The sporophyte always has a stalk ( seta ). The seta grows in length before the capsule ripens. The development of the sporogon takes five to 19 months. The capsule is pear-shaped to cylindrical and usually has a columella and peristome . It has a sloping lid, or the capsule stays closed and breaks open. The kalyptra tears off all around as the sporogon grows and is lifted up by the seta. In contrast to the liverworts, the Bryophytina have no elaters .


Stech and Frey classify the mosses as follows:

For a breakdown down to the family level, see the moss system .

Fossil evidence

Fossil mosses are rare. The oldest evidence goes back to the carbon . Fossil evidence is available from all subsequent geological periods.

The best preserved specimens were found in tertiary age amber ( Baltic , Dominican, and Mexican amber ). Some of the species found in the tertiary are very similar to recent mosses, most of which are native to Southeast Asia.


Individual evidence

  1. Wolfgang Frey, Eberhard Fischer, Michael Stech: Bryophytes and seedless Vascular Plants . In: Wolfgang Frey (Ed.): Syllabus of Plant Families - A. Engler's Syllabus of Plant Families . 13th edition. tape 3 . Borntraeger, Berlin / Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-443-01063-8 , pp. 121-124 .
  2. George O. Poinar, Jr .: Life in Amber . 350 pp., 147 figs., 10 plates, Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 1992. ISBN 0-8047-2001-0 .
  3. Wilfried Wichard, Wolfgang Weitschat: Atlas of plants and animals in the Baltic amber . Publishing house Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich 1998. ISBN 3-931516-45-8 .

Web links

Commons : Bryophyta  - collection of images, videos and audio files