Minchiate is an extinct card game from the Tarock family. It was first mentioned in 1466 in a letter from the poet Luigi Pulci to his young friend Lorenzo de Medici (other mentions: 1471 and 1477). In the 16th century it was also known as Germini .
Minchiate contains 97 playing cards , 78 of which correspond to the classic Tarocchi in the Italian colors ; some of the trump cards show a different order. In addition, the game has cards for the twelve signs of the zodiac and the seven cardinal virtues . The cards were used for the social card game as well as for the cartomancy .
Structure of the card game
The trump cards are divided several times.
- The trumps I, II, III, IV and V are called Papi,
- the trumps VI, VII, VIII and IX are called papetti or tarocchini,
- the trumps X-XIX are referred to as Sottoventi (under twenty), whereby the trumps XVI, XVII, XVIII and XIX are also called Preghae,
- the trumps XX-XXIX are called Sopraventi (over twenty),
- the trumps XXX-XXXV are called sopratrenta (over thirty)
- the five highest trumps have no number and are called an aria.
In the game the sequence of tricks is from top to bottom, which means that the card with the higher value beats the card with the lower value.
The colors are subdivided as in the Spanish L'Hombre , whereby the stitch sequence for the goblets and coins is from bottom to top, i.e. the ace as the highest trick to ten as the smallest. Conversely, with swords and staffs, ten is the highest trick, the ace the smallest.
Matto (skus, fool)
The Matto can always be played, but once it has been played it can be exchanged for a bad card by the next player. This means that Matto always remains in play until the last move.
- The cards give three points: II, III, IV and V
- The cards give five points: I, X, XIII, XX, XXVIII, all Sopratrente, the four kings and the Matto
- The aria are worth ten points each
The remaining cards are not counted.
A series of three or more consecutive cards of the same suit is called a versicola. This must be announced at the beginning of the game, the number of points is counted towards the tricks at the end of the game. If you have also stabbed the next card in the game, it also counts to the Versicola. In the case of trumps, only rows above XXVIII count. Trump card.
There are also irregular versicolons:
- The trump cards I, the fifth aria (XL) and the matto (corresponds to the trull in the tarot )
- Versicola de Tredici: The trump cards I, XIII and XXVIII
- Versicola delle Diecine: the trump cards X, XX, XXX and XL
- Diecine vergognose: The trumps XX and XXX
- In addition, 3 or 4 kings make a versicola
If you have Matto, you can add it to any Versicola, but it cannot replace a card.
The game is played with 4 people. Before the game, each player takes one off. The player who has withdrawn the highest card is the dealer. Together with the person who withdrew the second highest card, he forms a team that has to sit opposite each other, and the other two form a team. The dealer now looks at the bottom card in the deck. If it is a card that is counted (Carta di Conta), he shuffles until a pointless card is at the bottom. Now he gives the cards to the person sitting to his left, who takes it off, and if the card is a Carta di Conta or one of the Sopraventi he takes it and passes the pile on. The next player does the same until a card is withdrawn that is neither conta nor sopravente. This is called robbery. In this case, the cards go back to the dealer who now deals the cards, first dealing 10 cards to the player on the right hand, then to the player on the left hand, then to the opponent and finally to himself. Then he gives the player to right hand again 10 cards, then places the 11 face up on the table, which also belongs to the player on the right. If it is a Carta die Conta, it counts towards his points at the end of the game. He does the same with all other players and himself. The remaining cards form the talon .
The dealer now lifts the top card of the talon, if it is a Carta di Conte or a Sopraventi, he puts it face up in front of him. He does this until he comes across a worthless card. If this is the case, he puts the card back and looks for all Carta di Conte from the talon, but not the Sopraventi and then gives the talon to his teammate. This now sorts the cards of the talon in front of him, color to color and the tarots on top of each other. Each player now counts his cards, which must be 21. If they are more due to the robbery, he must return cards to the talon until he has 21 cards in hand. You can exchange one or more cards with those in the talon at any time in the game, provided it is your turn. If everyone has 21 cards, the player on the dealer's right begins the lead. When the first card is played, the players must announce their versicole, show it and write down its value. If you have forgotten to announce a versicola, you cannot repeat it.
In the game itself there is compulsory color, with the exception of the tarocks, which set the colors. If a tarot is played as the first card, the tarot is compulsory. A game round is over when a team can write 60 points from the regular game (i.e. without counting the versicole). After four rounds of play, after each player has given once (counterclockwise), the teams are drawn again.
- Early mentions of the game
- Minchiant rules from 1798
- Images of the deck "Ancient Minchiate Etruria" by Lo Scarabeo Antico (PDF file; 352 KB)