Mizmar , also mizmar baladi, muzmar, zamr Arabic مزمار, DMG mizmār , plural mazāmīr, generally designates a wind instrument with a single or double reed played in Arabic folk music . In the predominant, narrower sense, mizmar is a simple kegel oboe that is used in traditional Egyptian music.
The mizmar is related to the woodwind instruments of the surnai type made in the Persian region , which have spread throughout large parts of Asia. The interplay of two wind instruments and a drum is typical of most oboes in popular music in the Arab and Asian regions. In the Turkish music , a supplement zurna with a frame drum davul . The word mizmar goes back to the Semitic consonant root zmr and is related to zamara, zamer, zummara and nzumari .
Design and style of play
The one-piece body consists of a conically turned piece of wood that is drilled inside and provided with seven to ten finger holes on the top and a thumb hole on the bottom. Apricot wood ( mišmiš ) is traditionally used in Egypt, while the bell of newer instruments can be made of metal.
A distinction is made between three sizes: The sibs is 28 to 30 cm long and has an inner tube diameter of 1.4 cm, making it the smallest and most powerful oboe. It shares the melody with the medium-sized, 36 to 40 cm long and one octave lower chalabiya, whose inner tube diameter is 1.6 to 1.9 cm. The long telt or qabak (58 to 61 cm; inside 1.7 cm) produces a deep drone tone .
The mizmar is played with circular breathing . It creates a penetrating nasal sound and is used exclusively in folk music - as can be seen from the addition of the name baladi ("rural", "folk", "native"). In Egypt, this includes the baladi music. In a typical music group that occurs at dance events and weddings, three identical chalabiya play together with a double-headed, cylindrical drum ( tabl baladi ). Because of the polyphonic melody, never fewer than three mazāmīr are used. A fourth mizmar and a hand drum ( naqrazan ) are added in the rare larger cast . If particularly penetrating music is required at late hours at large parties or weddings, the musicians switch to one small sibs and two large qabaks . The term sibs does not refer to the small instrument, but to the high-pitched function within the orchestra. Even if several flutes (open length flute nay or kerbflute shabbaba ) play together, the smallest flute is called sibs .
The oriental dances ( raqs ) that are accompanied by Mizmar-Baladi orchestras include a woman's dance ( raqs al-baladi ) and a men's stick dance ( raqs al-assaya ), also called saidi , and a jug dance ( raqs al-juzur ) of women in Tunisia . The orchestras provide the musical welcome ( salām ) for the guests and also play in processions or to accompany trained dancing horses.
- Egypt. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in history and present , subject part 1, 1998, col. 319
- Artur Simon : On oboe drum music in Egypt. In: Max Peter Baumann , Rudolf Maria Brandl, Kurt Reinhard (eds.): Festschrift for Felix Hoerburger for his 60th birthday. Laaber, Laaber 1977, pp. 153-166
- Mizmar. Dominik Photo Photos from the production
- Christian Poché: David and the Ambiquity of the Mizmar According to Arab Sources. In: The World of Music, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1983, pp. 58-75, here p. 59
- Viviane Lièvre: The Dances of the Maghreb. Morocco - Algeria - Tunisia . (Translated by Renate Behrens. French original edition: Éditions Karthala, Paris 1987) Otto Lembeck, Frankfurt am Main 2008, p. 162