Operations Research
Under Operations Research (US English.) Or Operational Research (UK English.) Briefly OR , the German occasionally operations research , business planning or optimization calculation is generally understood the development and use of quantitative models and methods for decision support. Operations research is shaped by the collaboration between applied mathematics , economics and computer science .
history
The term operational research originally comes from the military . It was used in 1937 for a group of scientists investigating the optimal design of a radar surveillance system for the British armed forces. In 1940 the British Aviation Department had its own operational research group . The British Army and Royal Navy formed corresponding groups in the same year. Other questions posed by the working groups founded in England, the USA, here called Operations Research, and the Soviet Union during the Second World War included the optimal number of ships and escorts for ship convoys or the optimal width of bomb carpets in terms of accuracy and spread. After the war, the employees turned to economic areas, with the task of achieving a desired result at the lowest possible cost, or the dual task of achieving the best possible result with the means available ( economic principle ).
Of Operations Research, in Britain traditionally Operational Research called, no single German term could prevail universally valid. The term corporate research and then also operational research or mathematical planning calculations were and are most frequently used . In the late 1960s and early 1970s attempts were unsuccessful to establish the term process and planning research in the German language, so from 1959 to 1971 the scientific journal process and planning research was published .
Operations research is used today in engineering , business informatics and economics . There are also connections to game theory .
The professional societies are the German Society for Operations Research , the Austrian Society for Operations Research (ÖGOR) and the Swiss Association for Operations Research (SVOR) . The umbrella organizations are the European umbrella organization for OR, the Association of European Operational Research Societies (EURO), and the international association The International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS) .
Sub-areas
The most important part of Operations Research is mathematical optimization , especially integer optimization ( discrete mathematics ). The mathematical preparation of decisions requires knowledge in the areas of matrix calculation , vector analysis , stochastics and graph theory . The real problem lies in the modeling of a real problem in a mathematical model. Many practical problems of operations research are solved today with appropriate software products . Depending on the point of view and the task at hand, operations research is considered in different areas:
- Linear optimization
- Dynamic programming
- Integer linear optimization and combinatorial optimization
- Nonlinear Optimization
- Control theory
- Heuristic process
- Decision theory
- Game theory
- Graph theory
- Network plan technology
- simulation
- Queuing theory
known problems
Some known issues in Operations Research are:
- Postman problem ( Chinese postman problem )
- Salesman Problem
- Backpack problem
- Four color set
- Packing and cutting problems
- Sequence problem , for example with machine usage
These can often be modeled as path problems with the help of methods from graph theory . Even if some of these problems have practical applications, for example, transportation problems and reloading problems are more important in practice.
See also
literature
- C. West Churchman , Russell Ackoff, and Leonard Arnoff: Introduction to Operations Research. Wiley, 1957 ( German Operations Research: An introduction to corporate research. Oldenbourg, 1961 ).
- Olaf Bunke : Operations research and mathematical statistics. (= Series of publications) Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1968 to 1970.
- Werner Dück and Manfred Bliefernich (eds.): Operations research: Mathematical foundations, methods and models. (3 volumes), VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1972/1973.
- Michael Sauer: Operations Research compact 1st edition, Oldenbourg, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-486-59082-1 .
- Wolfgang Domschke , Andreas Drexl, Robert Klein and Armin Scholl: Introduction to Operations Research. 9th edition. Springer, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-662-48215-5
- Frederick S. Hillier, Gerald J. Lieberman: Introduction to Operations Research. 8th edition. McGraw Hill Higher Education, ISBN 0-07-123828-X
- Ulrich Kathöfer, Ulrich Müller-Funk : Operations Research. 3. Edition. UVK 2017, ISBN 978-3-867-64813-4
- Maurice W. Kirby: Operational Research in War and Peace: The British Experience from the 1930s to 1970 . Imperial College Press, 2003. ISBN 1-86094-366-7
- Heiner Müller-Merbach : Operations Research. 3. Edition. Verlag Vahlen, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-8006-0388-8
- Hans-Jürgen Zimmermann: Operations Research. Methods and Models. For industrial engineers, business administrators, computer scientists, mathematicians. 2nd edition, Vieweg, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-8348-0455-6
- Gerd Heinrich, Jürgen Grass (2006): Operations Research in Practice 1. Edition. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich ISBN 978-3-486-58032-7
- Klaus Neumann, Martin Morlock: Operations Research. 2nd Edition. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-446-22140-9
- "Operations Research as a Scientific Discipline" Current literature list, compiled by the ZBW - German Central Library for Economics
software
Freely available OR software
Free OR software services (SaaS)
Web links
- Alexander Stirn: Stealing by number mathematics against criminal energy: Californian scientists try to calculate series of burglaries in advance in the Süddeutsche Zeitung on February 24, 2010. Accessed on March 17, 2011.
- WISU Lexicon - Operations Research (PDF; 295 kB)
- Society for Operations Research (GOR) e. V
- The International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS )
- Association of European Operational Research Societies (EURO )
- INFORMS (English)
- Austrian Society for Operations Research (ÖGOR)
- TU Vienna, Operations Research and Control Systems
Individual evidence
- ↑ Domschke, Drexl: Introduction to Operations Research , 6th edition, p. 2.
- ^ Society for Operations Research: Operations Research . Accessed February 12, 2011
- ↑ See Thomas, William: Rational Action. The Sciences of Policy in Britain and America, 1940-1960 (= Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology). Cambridge, MS: MIT Press 2015.
- ^ ^{A } ^{b} Hans-Jürgen Zimmermann: Operations Research: Methods and Models . Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-528-03210-3 , p. 6ff
- ↑ Bodo Runzheimer, Thomas Cleff and Wolfgang Schäfer: Operations Research 1 . 8th edition. Publishing house Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-409-30718-4 , p. 1
- ^ Heinrich Grass: Operations Research in Practice . Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-486-58032-9 , p. 13ff
- ^ Wolfgang Domschke, Andreas Drexl: Introduction to Operations Research . 6th edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-540-42950-6 , p. 7ff.