Vegetable tissue culture

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In vitro cultivation of grapevines .
Axenic in vitro - cultivation of Physcomitrella patens on agar plates ( petri dish , 9 cm in diameter)

Plant tissue culture includes all methods of cloning plant cells for specific purposes under in vitro conditions. The basic totipotency of every plant cell is used. The aim is to create a complete and genetically identical plant (clone) from an explant (usually a piece of plant tissue) . The cells of the explant multiply in a sterile environment on a nutrient medium with the addition of plant hormones and light and form roots and leaves as part of adventitious organogenesis .

The plant tissue culture is an important component in the phytoremediation and pathogen freedom of plants for the mass reproduction of plants, which are either more difficult with conventional propagation methods (for example most representatives of the orchids ) or can be propagated more economically in large quantities by means of the plant tissue culture (for example African violets ). With many plant species, the plant tissue culture is the only way to produce young plants free of pathogens ( viruses , bacteria ). Another field of application is in plant breeding , whereby there may be overlaps with the plant single cell culture.


First of all, the explants have to be disinfected in order to kill any fungi and bacteria that may have adhered . Sodium hypochlorite , hydrogen peroxide or mercury (II) chloride are often used for this purpose . The plants are then placed on an individually suitable nutrient medium . In the following days, the vessels must be rated and, if there is bacterial or fungal growth, they must be sorted out and discarded.


For propagation, the plants emerging from the primary explant are placed on special solid nutrient media such as Murashige-Skoog medium (MS). In addition to the usual macro- and micronutrients and various vitamins , these also contain phytohormones in the form of auxins or cytokinins . Tissue pieces such as callus can also be amplified in a liquid medium and then transferred to a solid medium for organogenesis . The organogenesis of the in vitro plants can then be controlled primarily by means of the selection and dosage of individual phytohormones, so that plants can be propagated to a certain extent in in vitro culture.

See also


Web links

Commons : Meristem Propagation  - collection of images, videos, and audio files