Whorled milfoil ( Myriophyllum verticillatum )
The whorled thousand-leaf ( Myriophyllum verticillatum ) is a species of the thousand-leaf genus ( Myriophyllum ) in the thousand-leaf family (Haloragaceae). It is rarely used as an ornamental plant for garden ponds.
The whorled thousand-leaf is a perennial herbaceous plant that can reach growth lengths of usually 10 to 150, rarely up to 300 centimeters. It grows as an underwater plant ( hydrophyte ). The plant is branched and submerged except for the inflorescence. It forms perennial winter buds. The stem is mostly green. The five to six whorls arranged leaves are pinnate comb-shaped with thread-like sections. There are glands on the blade of the leaves.
This species is predominantly single-sexed ( monoecious ). There are plants with female, male and occasionally with hermaphrodite flowers. The flowers are located in the axils of the bracts , often as spiked inflorescences that are clearly separated from the foliage region and have a length of 5 to 20 centimeters. The bracts of the flowers are pinnate or comb-shaped and usually longer than the flowers. The flowers are four-fold. The terminal leaflets are partly wider in the middle than at the base. The petals of the male flowers are white, those of the female flowers are mostly stunted. The scars are whitish pink. There are eight stamens . The four-chambered fruits have a smooth surface.
The flowering period extends from June to September. The flowers are pollinated by the wind. The fruits spread over the water.
The number of chromosomes is n = 14.
The lively milfoil occurs in warm and cool Europe, Asia and North America.
It colonizes stagnant or slow-flowing, nutrient-rich, lime-poor and less polluted bodies of water that usually have a muddy subsoil, such as oxbow lakes, lakes, ponds and ditches. It thrives in water 0.5 to 3 meters deep. In Central Europe, it is a species of the Nymphaeion albae association.
- Eckehart J. Jäger, Friedrich Ebel, Peter Hanelt, Gerd K. Müller (eds.): Excursion flora from Germany . Founded by Werner Rothmaler. tape 5 : Herbaceous ornamental and useful plants . Springer, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8274-0918-8 .
- Siegmund Seybold : Flora of Germany and neighboring countries. A book for identifying vascular plants that grow wild and often cultivated . Founded by Otto Schmeil , Jost Fitschen . 93rd completely revised and expanded edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2006, ISBN 3-494-01413-2 .
- Jiarui Chen, Michele Funston: Haloragaceae. In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (Eds.): Flora of China . tape 13 : Clusiaceae through Araliaceae . Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Peking / St. Louis 2007, ISBN 978-1-930723-59-7 , Myriophyllum verticillatum , p. 430 (English, online ).
- Lively thousand-leaf. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 691 .
- Lively milfoil. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Lively milfoil . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Myriophyllum verticillatum L. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- Distribution in the northern hemisphere from: Eric Hultén, Magnus Fries: Atlas of North European vascular plants. 1986, ISBN 3-87429-263-0 at Den virtuella floran (swed.)
- Thomas Meyer: Data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia )