Under back exercise is meant a treatment concept that the prevention of back pain is and for the treatment of patients with back pain. The aim is, on the one hand, to convey back-friendly behavior and, on the other hand, to strengthen the abdominal and back muscles through various exercises and to provide concepts for relaxation. Training courses, for example, of health insurance , gyms , physiotherapists , physical therapists , occupational therapists offered or within the framework of sports groups. In individual or group lessons, back-friendly behavior is taught both in everyday situations and in a job-oriented manner. Abdominal and back muscles are trained with different strength and flexibility exercises. Shortened muscles that are important for the back (e.g. sciocrural muscles ) are stretched accordingly. Relaxation techniques can expand the program.
Back schools are subsidized by the statutory health insurances in Germany once a year (8–12 sessions of 60–90 minutes each) with around 80% (as of 2005). The back training courses recognized here are limited to max. 15 participants limited and must be led by sports teachers and doctors with appropriate additional qualifications and by physiotherapists (§ 20 SGB V ).
The target groups of the back school are people
- who move little (<1 hour of physical activity per week),
- who have already had back pain, as back pain is the strongest predictor of getting back pain again,
- who have risk factors for back pain (e.g. workers who have to move loads manually )
- Participants with nonspecific back pain, especially in the early stages of chronification, and
- Individuals with chronic back pain, as back school and exercise programs are of particular importance in the management of back pain.
In the Swedish gymnastics by Pehr Henrik Ling , back exercises were systematically taught as early as the first half of the 19th century, which corresponded to a back school . The first formal back school was set up as "Svenska Ryggskola" by Zachrisson-Forssell in 1969 at Danderyd Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden), with Fahrni and White already offering back education measures for their patients in the 1960s. The Swedish back school consisted of four sessions of 45 minutes each. The various back school approaches in the 1990s were based on different approaches that were medically-functional, medically-psychologically, sports-pedagogically or biomechanically-functionally oriented.
The back school came under criticism in the 1990s because there was no clear proof of effectiveness for the general back school, the results of the studies were inconsistent and the back school programs offered or examined differed greatly in terms of their goals, content, duration and forms of teaching. In 2004, therefore, nine back school associations formed
- Federal Association of State-Recognized Vocational Schools for Gymnastics and Sport (BBGS),
- Federal Association of German Back Schools (BdR) eV,
- Professional association of state-certified gymnastics teachers (DGYMB) eV,
- German Association for Health Sports and Sports Therapy (DVGS) eV,
- Forum for Healthy Backs - Better Living eV,
- Federal Association of Independent Physiotherapists - IFK eV,
- Seminar spine-back pain therapy,
- Association of Physical Therapy (VPT) eV and the
- Central Association of Physiotherapists / Physiotherapists (ZVK) eV
merged to form the Confederation of German Back Schools (KddR). The KddR introduced a binding curriculum for the course content in 2007.
The control of the key goals "promote back health" and "prevent chronification" is based on the core goals of exercise-related health programs:
- Strengthening physical health resources
- Strengthening psychosocial health resources
- Development of and attachment to health-oriented activity
- Sensitization for posture and movement conducive conditions
- Reduction of risk factors for back pain
- Coping with complaints and discomfort.
The back school uses the following content to achieve the above. Aims. Depending on the general conditions and the qualification of the course instructor, individual modules can take up more or less space:
- Body awareness exercises
- Exercises to improve basic motor skills
- Small games, forms of play and courses
- Presentation of life-time sports
- Exercises for posture and movement training
- Relaxation methods
- Stress Management Strategies
- Pain Management Strategies
- Strategies and tips for behavior and relationship prevention
- Knowledge and information transfer
The effectiveness of back school programs as a preventive measure against “unspecific” back pain has been secured with moderate to strong evidence. This is especially true for programs with chronic back pain sufferers, for programs in the workplace, and for programs that involve a large amount of active exercise. Due to the small number of high quality studies with positive evidence, further research is necessary and justified.
- HD. Kempf (ed.): Back school: Basics, concepts and exercises. 2nd Edition. Urban & Fischer, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-437-45077-8 .
- HD. Kempf: The back school . 3. completely revised and expanded new edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-62346-2 .
- HD. Kempf: The new back school. The practice book. Springer Medizin Verlag, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-540-89536-7 .
- C. Nentwig, J. Kramer , CH. Ullrich (ed.): The back school . Rework Edition. Enke 2002, ISBN 3-432-98233-X .
- K. Pfeifer: Back Health 2007 . Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-7691-0525-4 . (Basics and modules for planning courses)
- Federal Association of German Back Schools (BdR) eV
- Confederation of German Back Schools (KddR)
- Interest group of back school teachers (IGR)
- Circulum back school - manual. (PDF 0.5 MB) Standardized patient training. Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, accessed on July 19, 2012 .
- Engelhardt Lexicon for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery - definition / implementation
- The back school against back pain - Krankenkassen.net
- Target group of the back school - imedo GesundheitsNews ( Memento of the original from March 15, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Schäfer et al. 2000.
- Arnd Krüger : History of movement therapy. In: Preventive Medicine . Springer loose leaf collection, Heidelberg 1999, 07.06, 1 - 22.
- Zachrisson-Forssell 1980, 1981.
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- Heymanns 2005.
- Airaksinen et al. 2006.
- Brox et al. 2008.