Radau anti-Semitism describes a violent form of anti-Semitism that has been noticeable since the late 19th century through actions that were not regulated by law and remained in effect until the Nazi era . In addition, the persecution of the Jews was increasingly enshrined in the state under National Socialist rule and set as a legal guideline.
At the end of the 19th century, in the age of Wilhelminism , Jews in Germany were excluded from certain professions. They could neither become officers nor get a chair for German language and literature or for classical antiquity and languages . At the same time, violent actions by right-wing extremist groups against the Jewish population, such as mistreatment or even manslaughter, boycott campaigns and desecration of Jewish cemeteries and synagogues, increased. At the political level, the term is used, for example, for the work of Hermann Ahlwardt , Ernst Henrici , Wilhelm Marr , Adolf Stoecker and Karl Lueger .
After the First World War , the implementation of hostility towards Jews as a result of the defeat in the war and the establishment of the Weimar Republic was in principle linked to the overthrow of the system, which also radicalized anti-Semitism. In addition to radical anti-Semitism , another form of anti-Semitism with an emphasis on nationality has developed since the late 1920s . Cross-party members of the DNVP and the NSDAP demanded the state-sanctioned “removal” of Jews from the German people , which was initially achieved with the Nuremberg Laws during the Nazi era .
The “ Jewish boycott ” of April 1, 1933, around two months after the National Socialist seizure of power , is also attributed to “radical anti-Semitism”. He did not meet with great resistance from the population. In the Hessian city of Gelnhausen , the "radical anti-Semitism" of the first years of National Socialist rule has been historically examined and documented. The readiness to take violent actions against Gelnhausner Jews was nourished in the local press by anti-Jewish propaganda, in which individual Jews were named and people who had business or personal relationships with Jews were denigrated as traitorous "Jewish servants". Between 1933 and December 1935, Jews in Gelnhausen were pelted with stones and spat on. In March 1934, at a meeting in the local Jewish community center, the windows were broken in, which resulted in further property damage to Jewish houses. The weekly newspaper Der Stürmer , edited by Julius Streicher and published from 1923 to 1945, always used inflammatory language and did not shy away from pornographic descriptions when " racial offenses " were mentioned. The sheet, which is in Streicher's private collection, is also attributed to Radau anti-Semitism ; it served the propaganda preparation and justification of the Holocaust .
- Dirk Walter: Anti-Semitism (Weimar Republic). In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria . January 9, 2007, accessed July 30, 2020 .
- Dirk Rupnow : Destroy and Remember. Traces of nationalistic memory politics. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-871-X , p. 69.
- Arno Herzig : 1933-1945: Displacement and Destruction Federal Agency for Civic Education , August 5, 2010
- Daniel Hanke: The history of the Jews in Gelnhausen 1933-1938. Pp. 291-292. On-line
- Siegfried Zelnhefer: The striker. German weekly paper on the fight for truth. In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria . September 5, 2008, accessed July 30, 2020 .