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Red-legged stink bug (Pentatoma rufipes)

Red-legged stink bug ( Pentatoma rufipes )

Sub-stem : Trachea (Tracheata)
Superclass : Six-footed (Hexapoda)
Class : Insects (Insecta)
Subclass : Flying insects (Pterygota)
Superordinate : New winged wing (Neoptera)
Order : Schnabelkerfe
Scientific name
Linnaeus , 1758
Campyloneura virgula , a soft bug (Miridae)
Beautiful elf cicada ( Eurhadina pulchella ), a leaf cicada (Typhlocybinae)
Myzus persicae , a tube aphid (Aphididae)
Mouth parts of a bug

The Hemiptera (Hemiptera, Rhynchota) are an insect - order within the neuflügler (Neoptera). The Encyclopedia of Entomology put the number of species described at 82,000 in 2008 and estimated the total number of species worldwide to be 200,000. About 8000 of them live in Europe . The Hemiptera include the large groups (suborders) of the plant lice , the cicadas and the bugs . The species are very different in shape, color and way of life.


All groups belonging to the Schnabelkerfen are characterized by piercing-sucking mouthparts : The lower lip of the animals is designed as a slide for the piercing spines consisting of the mandibles and maxillae . Inside the laciniae (part of the maxilla) there is a channel through which suction can take place, as well as a saliva channel through which saliva is conducted into the feeding site. In all Schnabelkerfen parts of the oral cavity are transformed into a suction pump. The front legs are transformed into robbery legs in some representatives, in others the hind legs are developed into row or jump legs. Usually there are two pairs of wings. Similarities can be found in the structure of the wing fields. The anal field is clearly separated from the rest of the wing and the radial sector is always single-branched.

The distinction between adult animals of the three large groups of Central European Schnabelkerfe can be made using the features shown in the table:

 feature   Cicadas (Auchenorrhyncha)    Bed bugs (heteroptera)   Plant lice (Sternorrhyncha) 
Foot (tarsus)  tripartite, at least middle and hind legs  bipartite or tripartite  one or two-part
Trunk (rostrum)  at the "back" lower end of the head, directly at the throat  mostly at the front end of the head  at the "rearmost" lower end of the head, apparently just before or after the hips of the 1st pair of legs
Wing posture  Roof-shaped, wings always present, sometimes shortened   mostly folded flat over the abdomen, sometimes absent, sometimes shortened  roof-shaped, often absent
Forewing  Fore wing mostly thin-skinned (membranous) or strongly chitinized over the entire surface, never structurally divided into two parts  Fore wing usually divided into two parts, consisting of a strongly chitinized basal (corium, clavus) and a thin-skinned and transparent apical part (membrane) ( hemielytron Forewing thin-skinned (membranous)
Sensors (antennas)   comparatively short consisting of two strong basic limbs and a flagellum  four or five mostly strong limbs  relatively long, usually four-limbed, consisting of more or less similar limbs, partly absent
Way of life, habitat  only in rural habitats, mostly good jumping ability   only a few species with the ability to jump, in land habitats, on the surface of the water and in the water   partly fixed (scale insects), mostly free to move (aphids), partly with jumping ability (leaf fleas), only in land habitats


External system

In the cladistics , the order of the Schnabelkerfe is compared with the order of the fringed winged (Thysanoptera) within the Condylognatha . This in turn stands opposite the Psocodea within the Acercaria . The Acercaria probably form the dichotomous sister group of the ground lice (Zoraptera) within the Paraneoptera .








 ? Zoraptera

Internal system

Schnabelkerfe cladogram according to Bourgoin & Campbell 2002, modified

Outwardly it is a very diverse group. It is divided into the large groups of cicadas , plant lice , bed bugs and sheaths (a very small relic group of Gondwanian insects, with only 25 species , which are widespread on the continents of the southern hemisphere). Within the Schnabelkerfe four or five monophyletic groups, which are usually understood as subordinate groups, are known. The family relationships between these groups have not yet been conclusively clarified. Formally, they are still treated as subordinates.

Molecular biological studies confirm that the cicadas (Auchenorrhyncha) form a paraphylum . The group is then divided into two sub-orders: round-head cicadas (Clypeorrhyncha = Cicadomorpha) and pointed-head cicadas (Archaeorrhyncha = Fulgoromorpha). The latter are seen as more closely related to the bed bugs (Heteroptera).

There are different views on the status of subordination among bedbugs and sheaths. Traditionally, they are each seen as a separate subordinate of the Hemiptera. Different editors combine them to a new common subordination Prosorrhyncha (syn. Heteropteroidea, Heteropterodea).

The earlier names “Homoptera” and “Auchenorrhyncha” are to be regarded as obsolete. While the " Gleichflügler " as Paraphylum are now invalid taxon, for reasons of continuity, the latter term is (still) partly used for the cicadas.

Individual evidence

  1. JL Capinera (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Entomology . 2nd edition, Springer Verlag, 2008 ISBN 1402062427
  2. Fauna Europaea Web Service (2005) Fauna Europaea version 1.3 (April 19, 2007), online: (accessed on April 4 2008).
  3. ^ WE Holzinger, I. Kammerlander, H. Nickel: The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe - Die Zikaden Mitteleuropas. Volume 1: Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excl. Cicadellidae. - Brill, Leiden 2003, ISBN 90-04-12895-6 .
  4. ^ R. Biedermann & R. Niedringhaus: The cicadas of Germany - identification tables for all kinds . Fründ, Scheeßel 2004, ISBN 3-00-012806-9 .
  5. Sorensen JT, Campbell BC, Gill RJ, Steffen-Campbell JD, 1995. Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications with pre-Heteropteroidea Hemiptera (sl) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 71 (1): 31-60
  6. Jump up ↑ JR Cryan (2005): Molecular phylogeny of Cicadomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea and Membracoidea): adding evidence to the controversy. Systematic Entomology 30 (4), 563-574.
  7. D. Schlee: Morphology and Symbiosis; their evidential value for the relationships of the Coleorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera). Stuttgart Contribution to Naturk. 1969, No. 210: 1-27
  8. J. Zrzavy: Evolution of antennae and historical ecology of the hemipteran insects (Paraneoptera). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov., 1992, 89 (2): 77-86
  9. ^ A b Th. Bourgoin & BC Campbell (2002): Inferring a Phylogeny for Hemiptera: Falling into the "Autapomorphic Trap". In: Denisia 4, NF 176: 67-82, ISBN 3-85474-077-8 .


  • JL Capinera (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Entomology . 2nd edition, Springer Verlag, 2008 ISBN 1402062427

Web links

Commons : Schnabelkerfe  - Collection of images, videos and audio files