Masked stingray ( Neotrygon leylandi )
|Compagno , 1973|
The stingray-like (Myliobatiformes) are the most highly developed and most specialized order of the rays (Batoidea). They mainly inhabit tropical, subtropical and temperate zones of all oceans. They include the well-known manta rays ( Manta ), although they are stingless, and the South American freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), the only family of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichtyes) that occurs exclusively in freshwater .
|Internal systematics of the Myliobatiformes according to Naylor et al. (2012) with an addition according to White & Naylor (2016)|
The head, torso and pectoral fins of the stingray-like form a broad, diamond-shaped, oval or triangular body disc. In some forms that have given up life on the sea floor, the pectoral fins have developed into broad, wing-like locomotion organs with which they “fly” through the water. The fin supports ( Radialia ) of the pectoral fins stand up to the tip of the rostrum . The tail is stocky to whip-like and very slender. A caudal fin and a single dorsal fin are missing or small. Most species have one or more long, serrated venomous spines on the top of the tail. The sting is a modified placoid scale , coated with poisonous tissue and is only used for defense. Electrical organs are always absent. The skin is bare or covered with small scales of placoid. The nostrils are close together. Compared to other rays, the stingray species have large brains. Stingrays have no ribs. The shoulder blade and the fused, front part of the spine are connected by a ball joint . With the exception of the six- gill stingray ( Hexatrygon bickelli ), all stingray- like have five gill slits on each side. They are ovoviviparous .
The stingray-like family includes eleven families with over 25 genera and more than 210 species.
- Stingray (Myliobatiformes)
- Deep water stingrays (Plesiobatidae)
- Round stingrays (Urolophidae)
- Six-gill stingray (Hexatrygonidae)
- Stingrays (Dasyatidae)
- Freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae)
- Butterfly rays (Gymnuridae)
- American round stingray (Urotrygonidae)
- Devil rays (Mobulidae)
- Cow nose rays (Rhinopteridae)
According to Nelson (2016), the thornback guitar rays (Platyrhinidae) and the family Zanobatidae still belong to the stingray species for the time being. The former are probably the sister group of the electric ray-like (Torpediniformes), while Zanobatus at Naylor forms the order Rhinopristiformes together with the violin and guitar rays and the saw rays (Pristidae) .
- Joseph S. Nelson , Terry C. Grande, Mark VH Wilson: Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, 2016, ISBN 978-1118342336 .
- Kurt Fiedler: Textbook of Special Zoology, Volume II, Part 2: Fish . Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, 1991, ISBN 3-334-00339-6 .
- Alfred Goldschmid: Chondrichthyes. in: W. Westheide and R. Rieger: Special Zoology. Part 2. Vertebrate or skull animals. Spectrum, Munich 2004. ISBN 3-8274-0307-3 .
- Gavin JP Naylor, Janine N. Caira, Kirsten Jensen, Kerri AM Rosana, Nicolas Straube, Clemens Lakner: Elasmobranch Phylogeny: A Mitochondrial Estimate Based on 595 Species. Pages 39 to 40 in Jeffrey C. Carrier, John A. Musick, Michael R. Heithaus: Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives (Marine Biology). Publisher: Crc Pr Inc, 2012, ISBN 1-43983-924-7 .
- White, WT & Naylor, GJP (2016): Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae (Myliobatiformes) for the pelagic eagle rays, genus Aetobatus. Zootaxa , 4139 (3): 435-438. doi: 10.11646 / zootaxa.4139.3.10
- Neil C. Aschliman, Mutsumi Nishida, Masaki Miya, Jun G. Inoue, Kerri M. Rosana, Gavin JP Naylord: Body plan convergence in the evolution of skates and rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Volume 63, No. 1, April 2012, pp. 28-42. doi: 10.1016 / j.ympev.2011.12.012 .
- Gaitán-Espitia, JD, Solano-Iguaran, JJ, Tejada-Martinez, D: & Quintero-Galvis, JF (2016): Mitogenomics of electric rays: evolutionary considerations within Torpediniformes (Batoidea; Chondrichthyes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, April 2016. DOI: 10.1111 / zoj.12417
- Center for Shark Research: Batoids: Order Myliobatiformes: Stingrays