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Verrucaria sp.

Verrucaria sp.

Sub-kingdom : Dikarya
Department : Ascomycota mushrooms
Subdivision : Real ascent mushrooms (Pezizomycotina)
Class : Eurotiomycetes
Subclass : Chaetothyriomycetidae
Order : Verrucariales
Scientific name
Mattick ex D. Hawksw. & OEErikss.

The Verrucariales are an order of mostly lichen-forming hose fungi .


The shape of the thallus is very diverse. It ranges from leaf-shaped, crust-shaped to granular. Vegetative brood bodies such as isidia or soredia are rarely formed. Asexual reproduction by fragmentation of the thallus is more common. Sexual reproduction is more important for reproduction. The perithecia are on the surface of the thallus or completely sunk into it. A Hamathecium often missing when present, it consists of gelatinous Pseudoparaphysen . The opening of the perithecium (ostiolum) is covered by periphyses. The asci have a two-layer wall (bitunicat) and open fissitunicat until they disappear.

Way of life

Most species form lichens together with autotrophic organisms. These are mostly green algae , more rarely brown algae (Phaeophyta), yellow-green algae (Xanthophyceae), or red algae .

Some species parasitize on other lichens. Some of them still have their own photobiont, but also obtain nutrients from the thallus of other lichens, they are lichenicole lichens.

Distribution and locations

The order is spread worldwide (cosmopolitan). The species mostly grow on rock (saxicol), with the overgrown substrate ranging from pebbles to entire rocky slopes. Artificial substrates such as concrete walls are also overgrown. They are particularly diverse on calcareous substrates. Here they grow epilithically (on the surface) or endolithically (in the uppermost stone layer). Several species also grow on other substrates: soil, bark, wood, moss or other lichens.

The Verrucariales also comprise the largest group of marine lichens that grow on rocky coasts worldwide. Other species also grow in fresh water.


External system

The Verrucariales belong to the subclass of the Chaetothyriomycetidae and are a natural related group, a monophyletic taxon. The subclass cladogram looks like this:







Internal system

Eriksson lists two families for order:

Individual evidence

  1. David M. Geiser et al .: Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae , 2006.
  2. ^ OE Eriksson (Ed.): Outline of Ascomycota - 2006 In: Myconet , Volume 12, 2006, pp. 1-82. (online html)


  • David M. Geiser et al .: Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae . In: Mycologia , Volume 98, 2006, pp. 1053-1064.
  • DS Hibbett et al .: A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi . In: Mycological research , May 2007; 111 (5): 509-547. Epub 2007 March 13, 2007. doi : 10.1016 / j.mycres.2007.03.004 , (PDF; 1.3 MB)