|Mattick ex D. Hawksw. & OEErikss.|
The shape of the thallus is very diverse. It ranges from leaf-shaped, crust-shaped to granular. Vegetative brood bodies such as isidia or soredia are rarely formed. Asexual reproduction by fragmentation of the thallus is more common. Sexual reproduction is more important for reproduction. The perithecia are on the surface of the thallus or completely sunk into it. A Hamathecium often missing when present, it consists of gelatinous Pseudoparaphysen . The opening of the perithecium (ostiolum) is covered by periphyses. The asci have a two-layer wall (bitunicat) and open fissitunicat until they disappear.
Way of life
Some species parasitize on other lichens. Some of them still have their own photobiont, but also obtain nutrients from the thallus of other lichens, they are lichenicole lichens.
Distribution and locations
The order is spread worldwide (cosmopolitan). The species mostly grow on rock (saxicol), with the overgrown substrate ranging from pebbles to entire rocky slopes. Artificial substrates such as concrete walls are also overgrown. They are particularly diverse on calcareous substrates. Here they grow epilithically (on the surface) or endolithically (in the uppermost stone layer). Several species also grow on other substrates: soil, bark, wood, moss or other lichens.
The Verrucariales also comprise the largest group of marine lichens that grow on rocky coasts worldwide. Other species also grow in fresh water.
Eriksson lists two families for order:
- Verrucariales incertae sedis
- David M. Geiser et al .: Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae , 2006.
- OE Eriksson (Ed.): Outline of Ascomycota - 2006 In: Myconet , Volume 12, 2006, pp. 1-82. (online html)
- David M. Geiser et al .: Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae . In: Mycologia , Volume 98, 2006, pp. 1053-1064.
- DS Hibbett et al .: A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi . In: Mycological research , May 2007; 111 (5): 509-547. Epub 2007 March 13, 2007. doi : 10.1016 / j.mycres.2007.03.004 , (PDF; 1.3 MB)