Vostok (rocket)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Model of a Vostok-K missile
Vostok rocket model in Moscow

Wostok [ vɔsˈtɔk ] ( Russian Восток for east, English Vostok ) is a Soviet missile that was developed from the R-7 . The Vostok was created when a missile with a higher payload capacity was to be built based on the R-7. In addition, the two-stage R-7 received a third stage, which made it possible to launch heavier lunar probes and later also manned Vostok spaceships . The early version of the Vostok with the GRAY index 8K72, which launched the first Soviet lunar probes, is also known under the name Luna . The first launch of a Luna launcher took place on September 23, 1958, and on January 2, 1959, it successfully launched the Lunik-1 lunar probe. The rocket used a 9100 kg vast third stage ( Blok E ) extending from a RD-105 - rocket engine was driven. The engine burned the kerosene type RP-1 and liquid oxygen (LOX). The first two stages were identical to those of the R-7.

On April 12, 1961, a slightly improved Vostok-K (GRAU index 8К72К) with Vostok 1 launched the first human into space. The Vostok-K received a slightly enlarged and modified third stage with an RD-109 engine, and minor modifications were also made to the basic stages. These measures increased the rocket's payload capacity to 4,730 kg in low-earth orbit.

A slightly modified Vostok-2 (GRAU index 8A92) was used from 1962 to launch military reconnaissance satellites of the Zenit type, which essentially corresponded to a manned Vostok spaceship, but carried a camera system in place of the cosmonaut. A slightly modified Vostok-2M (GRAU index 8A92M) launched from 1967 meteor weather satellites and military early warning satellites Tselina-D . On March 18, 1980, a Vostok-2M exploded in Plesetsk while refueling directly on the launch pad. 48 people died in the explosion. The cause of the error was determined to be that the solder had been switched from tin to lead-based when making a filter for the hydrogen peroxide fuel line. The lead allowed the hydrogen peroxide to decompose and caused the explosion. The missile was modified accordingly. The last mission of the Vostok was on August 29, 1991, during which it carried the Indian earth exploration satellite IRS-1B into space.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Alexander S. Shteinberg: Fast Reactions in Energetic Materials: High-Temperature Decomposition of Rocket Propellants and Explosives . Springer Science & Business Media, 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-78861-4 ( google.com [accessed March 21, 2020]).
  2. Взрыв 1980 года. Retrieved March 21, 2020 .
  3. Медаль "За отсутствие состава преступления". March 18, 2000, accessed March 21, 2020 (Russian).