Centrioles (also known as centrioles ) are cylindrical structures that are found in many living cells . They have a size of around 170 nanometers × 500 nanometers (i.e. around 1/2000 mm) and together with the pericentriolar matrix form the centrosome (also called centrosome ).
Centrioles are important for transport and support tasks. They are involved (together with the pericentriolar matrix) in the formation of the MTOC ( microtubule-organizing center ), which forms the spindle apparatus for separating the chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis , but also contributes to the organization and physical stabilization of the cell during the interphase .
Centrioles occur in most animal cells and the cells of lower plants, but not in higher plants ( angiosperms ). In flagellated cells the centrioles are in the interphase as flagellated basal bodies , e.g. B. in the green alga ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ).
The centrioles of most mammals consist of 27 microtubules (9 triplets) that are connected by filaments . The structure of the centrioles is often different: microtubule doublets in Drosophila , microtubule singlets in the nematode C. elegans .