|( Bourcier & Mulsant , 1846)|
The Andean Parrot ( Amazilia franciae ) is a species of bird from the hummingbird family (Trochilidae). The species has a large range that includes the South American countries Peru , Ecuador and Colombia . The IUCN assesses the population as Least Concern .
The Andean Amazilie reaches a body length of about 9.1 centimeters, with the straight beak about 22 millimeters long. The pale pink lower bill is darkly colored at the tip. The top of the male is shimmering green, with the top of the head being purple-blue. The sides of the head and neck are glittering green. The entire underside is white with green flanks. The upper tail covers are copper colored. The slightly forked tail is bronze-green. Shortly before the tail end, the control feathers are traversed by a fuzzy dark band, which at the very end merges into a pale white border. The females look very similar, but have a green skull.
Normally, as solitary animals, they regularly fly to specific flowers in quick succession (traplining). Occasionally they gather at tree blossoms but also with other conspecifics and hummingbirds. During brief outages, they hunt insects in flight, which are often near plants. Occasionally they sing while sitting on exposed branches.
distribution and habitat
The birds like to move around damp to wet forest edges, secondary vegetation and cleared highlands with only a few trees. In Colombia they can be found at altitudes between 1000 meters and 2000 meters. The subspecies A. f. cyanocollis can be found on the upper reaches of the Río Marañón in a rather dry area with scrub and forest edges at altitudes between 400 and 2750 meters. A. f. viridiceps is present in Tumbes at altitudes between 600 and 700 meters. Their natural habitat is similar to that of other Amazilia hummingbirds , but it appears that they are more dependent on forests than other species in this genus.
Her singing is a rather squeaky sounding series that is similar to the song of the sugar bird ( Coereba flaveola ), but sounds less melodic. At A. f. cyanocollis this sounds like a haunting series of tea tew tew tones. In contrast, the call of A. f. viridiceps like a loud, wildly scattered beeping, as well as a series of ti ti ti ti tones.
So far, three subspecies of the Andean macilia are known.
- Amazilia franciae franciae ( Bourcier & Mulsant , 1846) - The nominate form occurs in the north-west and central Colombia. Here you can find them in the western Andes except in the Departamento de Nariño , in the Central Andes in the valley of the Río Magdalena and the eastern Andes in the Departamento de Cundinamarca .
- Amazilia franciae viridiceps ( Gould , 1860) - This subspecies is distributed in southwest Colombia through western Ecuador to the Tumbes region in Peru. In Ecuador the distribution area extends in the south to the province of El Oro and in the west to the province of Loja . There were also few observations in the province of Zamora Chinchipe . In contrast to the nominate shape, the top of the head shimmers green.
- Amazilia franciae cyanocollis ( Gould , 1853) - This subspecies is common in northern Peru. The crown of the head and the sides of the head are blue-green.
Etymology and history of research
Jules Bourcier and Étienne Mulsant described the Andean macilia under the name Trochilus Franciæ . The type specimen came from Bogotá . Only later was it added to the genus Amazilia . This name comes from a novel by Jean-François Marmontel , who told of an Inca heroine named Amazili in Les Incas, Ou La Destruction De L'empire Du Pérou . "Franciae" is dedicated to Francia Bourcier, probably a daughter of Jules Bourcier. The word "cyanocollis" is a Latin word made up of "cyanos" for "shiny blue, lapis lazuli " and "-collis, collum" for "-necked, neck, neck". "Viridiceps" is composed of the Latin words "viridis" for "green" and "-ceps, caput" for "-crown, head".
- Steven Leon Hilty, William Leroy Brown : A guide to the birds of Colombia . Princeton University Press, Princeton 1986, ISBN 0-691-08371-1 ( books.google.de [accessed June 28, 2014]).
- Thomas Scott Schulenberg, Douglas Forrester Stotz, Daniel Franklin Lane, John Patton O'Neill, Theodore Albert Parker III : Birds of Peru . Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey 2007, ISBN 978-0-7136-8673-9 .
- Robert Sterling Ridgely, Paul J. Greenfield: Birds of Ecuador Field Guide: Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy . tape 1 . Princeton University Press, Princeton 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8720-X .
- Robert Sterling Ridgely, Paul J. Greenfield: Birds of Ecuador Field Guide: Field Guide . tape 2 . Princeton University Press, Princeton 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8720-X .
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- Jules Bourcier, Étienne Mulsant: Description of vingt espèces nouvelles d'oiseaux-mouches . In: Annales des sciences physiques et naturelles, d'agriculture et d'industrie . tape 9 , 1846, pp. 312–332 ( books.google.de [accessed June 23, 2014]).
- John Gould: Description of five new species of Humming Birds . In: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London . tape 21 , no. 251 , 1853, pp. 61-62 ( biodiversitylibrary.org [accessed June 28, 2014]).
- John Gould: Description of twenty-two new species of Humming Birds . In: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London . tape 28 , 1860, p. 304-312 ( biodiversitylibrary.org [accessed June 28, 2014]).
- John Gould: A monograph of the Trochilidæ, or family of humming-birds . tape 5 , delivery 20. Taylor and Francis, London 1860 ( biodiversitylibrary.org [accessed June 28, 2014]).
- René Primevère Lesson , Prosper Garnot: Voyage autour du monde exécuté par Ordre du Roi, sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825, sous le ministère et conformément aux instructions de SEM Marquis de Clermont- Tonnerre, ministre de la marine; et publié sou les auspices de son excellence Mgr le Cte de Chabrol, ministre de la Marine et des colonies, par ML Dupppery, capitaine de frégate. chevalier de Saint-Louis et membre de la legion d'honaire, commandant de l'expédition . tape 1 : Zoology , No. 2 . Arthus-Bertrand, Paris 1828 ( biodiversitylibrary.org [accessed June 28, 2014]).
- Amazilia franciae inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014.1. Listed by: BirdLife International, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Andean Emerald ( Amazilia franciae ) . Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings of Andean Emerald (Agyrtria franciae) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Andean macilia ( Amazilia franciae ) at Avibase; accessed on June 28, 2014.
- Amazilia franciae in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- xeno-canto: sound recordings - Andean Emerald ( Amazilia franciae )
- Steven Leon Hilty u. a., p. 273.
- Robert Sterling Ridgely et al. a .: Birds of Ecuador Field Guide: Field Guide. 2001, p. 264.
- Thomas Scott Schulenberg, p. 228
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- Jules Bourcier u. a., p. 324
- John Gould: Description of twenty-two new species of Humming Birds. 1860, p. 307.
- Robert Sterling Ridgely: Birds of Ecuador Field Guide: Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy. 2001, p. 256.
- John Gould (1853), p. 61.
- Jules Bourcier u. a., p. 325.
- René Primevère Lesson u. a. (1827), entry p. 683, see plate: XXXI, Figure 3.Oiseau-Mouche (Orthorynchus Amazilia, N.)
- John Gould: A monograph of the Trochilidæ, or family of humming-birds. 1860, plate 287 plus text. Gould thinks it is a daughter of Bourcier. He doesn't seem to know clearly. He wrote: M. Bourcier tells us that he has named this species in honor of Mademoiselle Francia Bourcier, who is, I believe, his amiable daughter.
- James A. Jobling p. 126.
- James A. Jobling p. 403.