Baking ability

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Baking ability is the summary of measurable characteristics of bread grain flour to form a so-called long dough , i.e. a cohesive and elastic dough that creates a crumb when baking . If the baking ability is already achieved by mixing the dough, one speaks of self-baking ability , i. H. A loaf of bread can be made from the dough . Otherwise, the baking quality will be improved by the dough guidance after preparation . The dough flow increases the gas formation and the gas holding capacity.

Wheat , spelled and rye flours are self-baking. These types of grain are therefore referred to as "bread grain " in Germany. Only flours made from bread grain are typified and divided into flour types. Bread can also be baked from emmer and einkorn flours - but they are economically insignificant. All other types of grain are not self-baking. However, products made from them can be used as ingredients in bread baking.

Bread grain (self-baking) Other types of grain (not self-baking)
wheat barley
rye oats
(Emmer) Corn
(Einkorn) rice
Spelt millet
all pseudograins

The baking ability is based on:

  • in wheat flours on the formation of disulphide bridges between glue molecules (oxidation of -SH groups in certain amino acids to -S – S bridges). As a result, adhesive molecules are cross-linked and large molecules ( polymers ) are created. This structure allows the gas ( CO 2 ) produced during fermentation to be retained in the dough. The dough rises and a loaf is created.
  • with rye flours on the high proportion of pentosans , which have a high water-binding and swelling capacity It is also the pentosans that prevent the formation of a glue structure in rye dough, as in wheat dough. Furthermore, the acids formed during the sourdough process reduce or prevent the activity of the starch-degrading enzymes (lowering the pH value in the dough).

The part of the nutritional value , which is essentially determined by the starch content , and also the fat content do not significantly influence the self-baking ability. Characteristics that determine the baking ability are the content of gluten (gluten, strengthening, especially in wheat ) and pentosans (mucilage, reducing, especially in rye).

Wheat varieties or their flours with a high protein content provide good self-baking ability, while the high-yield and therefore mostly low-protein varieties show, on average, at best satisfactory baking behavior.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Josef Loderbauer: The baker's book in learning fields . Verlag Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-582-40205-9 .
  2. Waldemar Ternes , Alfred Täufel, Lieselotte Tunger, Martin Zobel (eds.): Food Lexicon . 4th, comprehensively revised edition. Behr, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-89947-165-2 .
  3. Grain cultivation and grain properties ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 555 kB)  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /