Charles Ferdinand d'Artois
Charles-Ferdinand d'Artois ( German Karl Ferdinand von Artois ), Duke of Berry (born January 24, 1778 Palace of Versailles ; ~ August 28, 1778 in the Palace Chapel of Versailles; † February 14, 1820 in Paris ), petit-fils de France , later fils de France , was the younger son of the Comte d'Artois , later King Charles X.
He grew up at the court of his uncle King Louis XVI. on. During the French Revolution , he left France with his father at the age of eleven and served in the emigrant army until 1797 . He then joined the Russian army, settled in England in 1801 and stayed there for thirteen years. After Napoleon's abdication in 1814, Berry returned to France. With his honest demeanor he won the sympathy of his compatriots, and Louis XVIII. appointed him commander in chief of the Paris army on Napoleon's return from Elba . However, he was unable to maintain the loyalty of his troops and withdrew to Ghent during the " Rule of the Hundred Days " .
Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, himself an artist, was an art patron and collector. During his stay in England he began to collect paintings from the Flemish and Dutch schools, which he supplemented with contemporary French works after his final return to France and which he kept in L'Élysée-Bourbon , the residence of Louis XVIII. made available to him in Paris in 1816. Charles Paul Landon , curator of the Musées Royaux , who was in the service of the Duke of Berry as a painter, indicated the size of the collection known as the collection du duc de Berry with almost a hundred paintings by old masters and about half as many modern paintings. The “first-rate” private collection ( Gustav Friedrich Waagen ), which was renamed the collection du duc de Bourgogne after the Duke's death and in some cases also made accessible as the Musée L'Élysée-Bourbon , was auctioned in April 1837. Most of the valuable paintings went to Russia and England.
On February 13, 1820, the saddler Louis-Pierre Louvel committed a fatal assassination attempt on the Duke of Berry while leaving the opera (then the Salle Montansier, rue de la Loi, today place Louvois).
In the following years he became a symbol of the restoration . When, after the July Revolution of 1830, a commemorative mass was held for him on February 14, 1831 in the Paris church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois , a violent mass protest broke out in the course of which the church of St-Germain was devastated and the bishop's palace by the cathedral Notre-Dame was completely destroyed.
|Louis XV King of France (1710–1774)|
|Ludwig Dauphin of France (1729–1765)|
|Maria Leszczyńska Queen of France and Princess of Poland (1703–1768)|
|Charles X. King of France (1757–1836)|
|August III. King of Poland, Kft. Of Saxony (1696–1763)|
|Maria Josepha of Saxony (1731–1767)|
|Maria Josepha of Austria (1699–1757)|
|Charles Ferdinand d'Artois|
|Charles Emanuel III. Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia-Piedmont. (1701-1773)|
|Viktor Amadeus III. King of Sardinia-Piedmont and Duke of Savoy. (1726-1796)|
|Polyxena of Hessen-Rotenburg (1706–1735)|
|Maria Theresa of Savoy (1756–1805)|
|Philip V King of Spain (1683–1746)|
|Maria Antonia of Spain (1729–1785)|
|Elisabetta Farnese (Queen of Spain 1692–1766)|
Marriages and offspring
In the English emigration, Charles went into a relationship with the married Amy Brown Freeman (1783–1876), daughter of the Anglican priest John L. Brown and Anne Deacon. Amy was also the mother of a son John, born in 1804, but had never recognized their marriage. The Duke and Amy married in 1806. The couple had two children:
- Charlotte Marie Augustine de Bourbon (1808–1886), Countess of Issoudun since 1820, married to Duke Ferdinand Victor Amédée de Faucigny-Lucinge since 1823.
- Louise Marie Charlotte de Bourbon (1809-1891), Countess von Vierzon since 1820, married to Baron Athanae Charles Marin de Charette de la Contrie since 1827.
In 1815, the marriage with Amy was officially divorced.
After conclusion of a marriage contract on April 15, 1816 Charles Ferdinand d'Artois by proxy married on April 24, 1816 Naples by wedding ceremony on June 17 in Paris in 1816 at the Cathedral of Our Lady Princess Marie Caroline of Bourbon-Sicily (1798 –1870), the eldest daughter of the then Crown Prince Franz of the Two Sicilies and the already deceased Crown Princess Maria Klementine . This marriage gave birth to four children, of whom the first lived only two hours, the second one day, and the last was born posthumously:
- Louise-Isabelle d'Artois, petite-fille de France (* July 13, 1817 Paris; ~ / † July 14, 1817 there), buried in the royal tomb in Saint-Denis ;
- nn by Artois (* / † September 13, 1818);
- Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois (1819–1864), known as Mademoiselle , after 1830 Mademoiselle de Rosny ⚭ 1845 Duke Charles III. of Parma (1823-1854)
- Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné de Bourbon , Duke of Bordeaux (1820–1883), after the abdication of Charles X, his grandfather, and the resignation of his uncle, the Duke of Angoulème from 1830, Count of Chambord and Henri V 1846 Princess Maria Theresia of Austria-Este , daughter of Duke Franz IV of Modena-Este
Henri was born seven months after his father's murder and was celebrated as the longed-for, posthumously born heir to the throne as "enfant du miracle", as the "miraculous child".
D'Artois was Colonel général of the Chevau-légers-lanciers .
- ^ Register of the parish church of Notre-Dame de Versailles
- ↑ Gazette 1778, p. 64
- ^ Register of the parish church of Notre-Dame de Versailles
- ↑ Moniteur universel 1820 , pp. 184 and 187
- ^ Charles Paul Landon: Salon de 1819 , in: Annales du Musée et de l'Ecole Moderne des Beaux-Arts , Vol. 2, Paris, Imprimerie de Pillet Aîné, 1831
- ^ Gustav Friedrich Waagen: Works of art and artists in Paris , Berlin, 1839
- ↑ The events, in particular the role of Archbishop Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen , are described in detail by Guillaume de Bertier de Sauvigny: Mgr de Quélen et les incidents de Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois en février 1831 . In: Revue d'histoire de l'Église de France. Band 32/120, 1946, p 110-120 ( digitized. In: Persée . Retrieved on January 29, 2020 . )
|SURNAME||Artois, Charles Ferdinand d '|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Artois, Charles-Ferdinand d '; Artois, Karl Ferdinand von; Bourbon, Charles Ferdinand de; Berry, Charles Ferdinand of Bourbon Duke of|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Son of the future French king Charles X.|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 24, 1778|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Versailles|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 14, 1820|
|Place of death||Paris|