English heraldry

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The English heraldry essentially resembles the development of the other European states up to the 15th century.

Official supervision of the coat of arms developed early on. Registration and legal protection distinguish them from the rest of European heraldry. A great variety of shapes, especially among the mythical creatures , are characteristic of the traditional heraldry . The simple heraldic images , such as the cross , especially the George Cross , which became popular from the Crusades , as an attribute of the patron saint George, characterize the English coat of arms. Ermine is used a lot. Common figures and helmet decorations are often depicted naturalistically. Seafaring motifs are popular. The inheritance of coats of arms (hereditary coats of arms) determine the numerous coat of arms associations ( alliance arms ). The large number of fields marks the shields, which makes the coat of arms appear less clear. Small secondary characters, such as the additional character , can make the coat of arms appear overloaded. The differentiation of coats of arms within families, which is still common among the nobility up to the present day, makes the coats of arms more complicated from generation to generation. Everything was and is done according to a system of clear rules overseen by the College of Arms .

The heraldic elements in detail:

  • Heraldic shield : The "English" shield is preferred, although there were varieties in the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • Helmet : Visor and temple helmets are preferred as helmets . Temple helmets usually have five visible temples in the illustration. With the exception of the bow helmets of the Sovereign , the Royal Consort , the Prince of Wales and the Heirs apparent des Prince of Wales, the open visor helmets of the Baronets and Knights , the helmets appear in a half profile.
    • Bow helmets are used by peers .
    • Several helmets over a shield are irrelevant and always turned heraldically to the right.
  • Helmet ornament : The helmet ornament without a helmet on a helmet bulge , still floating above the upper edge of the shield , soon appears without the important coat of arms and replaces the overall coat of arms. This representation (“ crest ” alone, without helmet and shield) can only be found to this extent in English heraldry.
  • Crowns : The helmet is placed on the peers' crowns or it hovers over a crown of rank, only the crown of certain members of the royal family (in particular the sovereign and Prince of Wales) is placed on the helmet as a helmet crown .
  • Badges : Additional use of royal or princely badges as so-called badges. The coat of arms images, such as roses, flowers, stars and feathers, are considered hereditary personal symbols that are floating next to or above the coat of arms. The cut-off open left hand (" sinister hand ") is considered a symbol of rank for the English baronets and occupies a separate place in the coat of arms.
  • Word currencies : The word currencies are essential in English heraldry.
  • Heraldic animals : The heraldic animals, such as mythical creatures and other fantasy figures, are composed of a wide variety of animal bodies. The basilisk and lindworm or the fire-breathing antelope and the unicorn are popular . Allegorical figures are also common. Many coats of arms are reminiscent of the glorious shipping and are given a place of honor in the coat of arms. What is in the sign also has a place as a sign holder .
  • Municipal coat of arms: In the municipal coat of arms, the preference for coat of arms differentiation becomes clear. The additional use of royal and princely badges promotes independence. Compared to the city arms of other countries, these arms can appear overloaded. Preferred shield figures are the George Cross , the English lion , lily , rose and crown. All English cities have the right to have a helmet with a crest and an additional shield holder in their coat of arms. Wall crowns are also used. On the helmets of general coats of arms, these refer to a conquered or successfully defended city or fortress.

The Scottish and Irish heraldry does not deviate significantly from the English heraldry, despite independent supervision of the heraldic events. Helmet crowns can be given to specific genders . Crests become the badge of individual clans . You surround this with a band with the word motto.

See also