Additional character

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marks ( break , French brisure ) are characters in the coat of arms , which are used to differentiate between divided lines or to identify younger birth and false descent (the latter only in Western nations).


Markers were used more frequently in Western Europe than in Central Europe.

In England and France, the coats of arms in the families differ in the brisures. It is the tournament collar, bias threads or borders . They show the affiliation in type and position to the family branch. In England the assignment of the tournament collar with common figures for further differentiation / improvement of the coat of arms is common. To differentiate between the individual family lines, small figures of the same type ( hearts , diamonds , small cages ) are placed in the shield. In this case, they are treated as a special character.

The characteristic of the mark is that the omission of the same does not change the coat of arms, but rather restores the original shape. If the figure in question appears independently (such as the tournament collar, for example, not infrequently), then it is not a symbol but the main image. It has also sphragistische , two the image and the size of similar motif, which have the purpose seal types to distinguish by a falling in the eye feature.



In Germany the markings were created in a very diverse way, e.g. B. by reducing the helmets or the tincture , by increasing, decreasing or mutilating the figures. The most important figurative symbols that occur as such in Germany are z. B .:

Ecu d'argent à un lambel à cinq pendants de gueules.svg
Tournament collar First son The tournament collar is also known as a bench, bar, rake or bridge. It is generally used when the eldest son wants to differentiate his coat of arms from that of his father (coat of arms crusher).
Ecu d'argent au croissant de gueules.svg
lying moon Second son
Blason Ville 73 Aix-les-Bains.svg
star Third son The five-pointed star was originally a spur wheel and is often depicted with six points in France.
Blason ville for Sarcelles (Val-d'Oise) .svg
Merlette Fourth son The Merlette is a heraldic trimmed small, duck-like bird without a beak or feet.
Coat of arms Meissenheim.svg
Ring annulet Fifth son
Blason Condé-sur-Noireau.svg
Lily (fleur-de-lis) Sixth son
Ledenice CZ CoA.svg
rose Seventh son
Blason Annoeullin 59.svg
cross Eighth son

There are no identifiers in German heraldry for female descendants.

Great Britain

British royal family

The Canadian system
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales.svg
Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge, svg
Arms of Harry, Duke of Sussex.svg
Arms of Andrew, Duke of York, svg
Arms of Beatrice of York, svg
Queen's coat of arms
Coat of arms of the
Prince of Wales
Prince William coat of arms Prince Harry
coat of arms
Duke of York coat of arms Princess Beatrice coat of arms
Arms of Eugenie of York, svg
Arms of Edward, Earl of Wessex.svg
Arms of Anne, the Princess Royal, svg
Arms of Richard, Duke of Gloucester.svg
Arms of Edward, Duke of Kent.svg
Arms of Michael of Kent.svg
Princess Eugenie coat of arms Earl of Wessex coat of arms Princess Royal coat of arms Duke of Gloucester coat of arms Duke of Kent coat of arms Prince Michael coat of arms


French royal family

The Fleur-de-Lys quartered with collar bordered with break
France modern.svg
Arms of the Dauphin of France, svg
Blason duche for Orleans (modern) .svg
Blason duche for Anjou (modern) .svg
Blason duche for Berry (modern) .svg
Blason pays for Dombes.svg
Poor Bourbon-Conti.png
Blason Bourbon Vendôme.png
Coat of arms of the
Coat of arms of the
Dauphin of France
Coat of arms of the
Duke of Orléans
Coat of arms of the
Duke of Anjou
Coat of arms of the
Duke of Berry
Coat of arms of the
Prince of Condé
Coat of arms of the
Prince of Conti
Coat of arms of the
Duke of Vendôme


The Prince of Bulgaria , the son of Prince Alexander of Hesse from an unequal marriage, carried the Hessian lion with the tournament collar as a sign.


House of Savoy

Arms of the House of Savoy, svg
Arms of the Prince of Piedmont, svg
Arms of the House of Savoy-Genova.svg
Arms of the House of Savoy-Aosta.svg
Armoiries Comte de Soissons Savoie-Carignan.svg
Coat of arms of the
Coat of arms of the
Prince of Piedmont
Coat of arms of the
Duke of Genoa
Coat of arms of the
Duke of Aosta
Coat of arms of the
Prince of Carignan


Portuguese royal family

Armas rei portugal.png
Armas principe beira.png
Armas principe real portugal.png
Armas primeiro infante portugal.png
Armas segundo infante portugal.png
Armas terceiro infante portugal.png
Coat of arms of the
Coat of arms of the
Prince of Beira
(eldest son of the heir to the throne)

Crown Prince's coat of arms
Coat of arms of the
First Infante
Coat of arms of the
Second Infante
Coat of arms of the
Third Infante


The genealogical symbols:

- Tournament collar moon star Merlette ring lily
Modern French shield.svg
Lambel (couleur) .png
Croissant d or.svg
Étoile d'or.svg
Héraldique meuble Merlette (couleur) .png
Fleur de lys (or) .svg
First son Second son Third son Fourth son Fifth son Sixth son Seventh son

Spanish royal family

Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch, svg
Coat of Arms of Leonor, Princess of Asturias.svg
Coat of arms of the monarch Coat of arms of the Prince of Asturias

See also


  • Meyers Konversationslexikon . 4th edition. Publishing house of the Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna, 1885–1892
  • Additional character . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 2, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 631.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. See: Konrad Fuchs , Heribert Raab: dtv dictionary for history. Volume 1: A-K (= dtv 3283). 6th edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-423-03283-9 , p. 83.
  2. ^ A b Walter Leonhard : The great book of heraldic art. Development, elements, motifs, design. Georg DW Callway, Munich 1976, ISBN 3-7667-0335-8 .
  3. ottfried neubecker , Roger Harmignies: Le Grand livre de l'héraldique. L'histoire, l'art et la science du blason. Bordas, Paris 1981, ISBN 2-04-012582-5 .
  4. Heraldique Europeenne ( Memento of the original dated February 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Accessed April 18, 2009. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  5. ^ Jiří Louda, Michael Maclagan: Les Dynasties d'Europe. Héraldique et Généalogie des Familles Impériales et Royales. Nouvelle édition. Bordas, Paris 1993, ISBN 2-04-027013-2 , pp. 242-243.
  6. José de Avilés, Marqués de Avilés: Ciencia heroyca, reducida a las leyes heráldicas del blasón. Volume 2. J. Ibarra, Madrid 1780, pp. 234-242 (Edición facsimilar: Bitácora, San Fernando de Henares 1992, ISBN 84-465-0006-X ).