Manufacturing stage

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The production stage (or production stage ) is in the production process , a procedural self-contained cycle element during production , the additional operational sequences to produce the final product must follow.


In companies with a high level of vertical integration, there are usually several production stages. The process section of production between two production levels is called the production level, whereby production levels are the levels of a production structure that are defined according to the production process aspects . Usually, several successive operations can be combined in one production stage. It is the job of the production control to carry out a very detailed gradation taking into account technical dependencies.

Wolfgang Kilger defined the creation of marketable preliminary or intermediate products as the dividing line between two production stages . Another prerequisite is that the work processes of a uniform production stage are not interrupted by intermediate storage . The assumption of a single-stage production is viewed as unrealistic in the context of the division of labor .

Example construction

In construction , the various stages of production are visually recognizable for everyone. On a construction site , there is for example in the construction process , the building site , after which follow excavation of the pit , structural work until the completion of structural work , installation of windows , interior design , home automation , interior plaster , screed and tile work as an important manufacturing steps which are interdependent. It is essentially a series of production stages comprising flow production , as modified in other branches of industry .

Planning levels

The planning or requirements determination level ( English low-level code ) is the lowest production level in which a part is used in a product structure. With the help of the low-level code, secondary requirements, requirements dates and lot sizes are determined when determining requirements . The production levels represent the manufacturing workflow to the finished product. If the same materials occur in different production levels, repeated comparisons result in increased workload, so that material requirements planning can be carried out according to the planning levels. In the low-level planning procedure , each preliminary product, assembly, production material and intermediate product is assigned a low-level code, the number of which is identical to the number of the lowest production level in which this low-level item is used. Identical parts or assemblies are pulled down to the lowest production level when determining the planning level.

In production planning and control , the low-level code is usually determined during the management of the structural BOM.


The following figure shows the product structure of product A, which is made from parts B, C and D.

Example of a low-level code

Manufacturing stage

  • In the picture above, product A has production level 0 .
  • A consists of (is assembled from) B and C . B and C have production stage 1 .
  • B in turn consists of D and - again - C . D and this C have production stage 2 .

Planning level

  • A again has the disposition level 0
  • B has planning level 1 . However, because it is needed one level below, C does not have planning level 1 , but planning level 2 .
  • D has the level of the lowest disposition level, namely 2 .

economic aspects

In the production process, the quantitative input ( operating resources and especially materials ) of the individual production stages is ideally identical to the quantitative output ( end products ). If it is not identical ( scrap , shrinkage , theft ), the additive division calculation can not be used; the cumulative calculation is required instead. Result of this calculation are incurred on a production stage levels costs .

Multi-stage production requires a detailed process organization . The individual production stages require close harmonization, so that bottlenecks in some areas lead to a queue . This is particularly important for just-in-time production . The more production stages there are, the longer the lead time .


Production stages are the object of knowledge in business administration . Under processing stages , however one understands the economics that of primary production following production processes in various establishments which processing , refining , refining or processing of raw materials or raw materials producing marketable end products.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Peter Klaus / Winfried Krieger (eds.), Gabler Lexikon Logistik , 2000, p. 144
  2. Ernst Gillessen, Integrated Production Planning , 1988, p. 7
  3. Wolfgang Kilger, Optimal Production and Sales Planning , 1973, p. 33
  4. Ernst Gillessen, Integrated Production Planning , 1988, p. 7
  5. Klaus Dellmann, Decision Models for Series Production , 1975, p. 153
  6. Hermann Bauer, construction company 2: construction process, costs, disruptions , 1992, p. 500 f.
  7. Gerd Schulte, Material and Logistics Management , 2001, p. 117
  8. Bernhard Hartmann / Sven Hellfors, Organizational Systems for Business Electronic Data Processing , 1971, p. 156
  9. Wolfgang Walter, Introduction to Modern Cost Accounting , 2000, p. 210