Forest manager , forest warden (Switzerland), forest skilled worker (Austria), formerly also forest skilled worker , is a state-recognized training occupation for a forest worker. A forest manager carries out all activities in the forestry operation ( forest work ), from establishing new forest stands to harvesting wood .
The areas of responsibility include:
- Establishment and regeneration of forest stands
- Development and maintenance of forest stands
- Protection of forest stands from harmful influences ( game , insects , fungi )
- Maintenance of forest roads
- Creation and maintenance of protective and forest recreation facilities
- Use in nature and landscape conservation (creation and conservation of biotopes )
- Management of forestry machines ( harvesters , forwarders )
- Help in the hunt for operation
- Motor-manual timber harvesting
The training (according to the Vocational Training Act) takes place in the dual system . With the exception of Bremen, all federal states in Germany offer apprenticeships. Around two thirds of the training places are in the state forest , a quarter in the corporate forest and around 10% in the private forest . The training lasts three years and ends with the skilled worker examination. The number of registered apprenticeship positions is declining and was 1,656 in 2015. 6.7% of these are occupied by women. The proportion of women has increased in recent years. In 2011 it was still 4.6%.
- Forest machine operator - depending on the state
- Nature and landscape conservationist (ranger)
- Forestry master - up to the district management, depending on the federal state
- Forest technician - district manager for private and corporate forests
When Diploma in forestry , in Austria only forester called, it is, however, to a degree, the degree of the university after the successful completion of Forest Sciences is awarded. Forest managers in Austria who have previously been trained at a university are entitled to manage a forest area of over 3600 hectares . The training takes place this at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (zehnsemestriges bachelor - and master's studies) with two years of experience as a forestry assistant and a state examination for the higher forest service.
Use of the term in tax law
Private forest owners regularly earn income from agriculture and forestry even without special training and without personal forestry activities and are therefore sometimes referred to as foresters from a tax law perspective.
- Board of Trustees for Forest Work and Forest Technology & Working Committee of the Forest Work Schools of the Federal Republic of Germany (Ed.): Der Forstwirt. 112 tables . Ulmer, Stuttgart-Hohenheim 2004, ISBN 3-8001-1226-4
- Uwe Tobä: Between a stopwatch and a splitting ax. The history of forest worker training in the 20th century. Interdisciplinary investigation with special consideration of forest work science and professional and work pedagogical developments, basics and justifications . Conte-Verlag, Saarbrücken 2003, 472 pages, ISBN 3-9808118-7-5
- Ekkehard Schwartz : Working and living conditions of forest workers in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Germany . KWF report no.24. Kuratorium für Waldarbeit und Forsttechnik eV (KWF), Groß-Umstadt 1998, 196 pp.
- Forest manager on BERUFENET of the Federal Employment Agency
- Training as a forester (website of the Lower Saxony LWK)
- Vocational training as a forest manager , information brochure from the State of Brandenburg (PDF, 1.2 MB)
- Wolfgang Kawollek: "Studies on the development of occupations in agriculture - forestry"; Forstliche Mitteilungen, 11/2017, pp. 8–12
- BFH, judgment of 9.3.2017 - VI R 86/14, BStBl 2017, II 981