In the late 1950s, the psychologist and psychotherapist Carl Rogers , the family therapist Virginia Satir, and the psychologist Abraham Maslow founded the American Association for Humanistic Psychology (AHP), which pioneered this movement. Humanistic psychology has ideological roots above all in humanism and, based on this, in existentialism ( Jean-Paul Sartre , Martin Heidegger ), in phenomenology ( Edmund Husserl ) and functional autonomy ( Gordon Allport ).
The first developed humanistic psychology goes back to Abraham Maslow ( positive psychology ). His concept was later taken up by Carl Rogers in particular in his client-centered psychotherapy (also: person-centered, non-directive, talk therapy (GT) or talk psychotherapy) and further developed for the practical area. The core thesis of Carl Rogers in humanistic psychology is:
“The individual has potentially unheard-of opportunities to understand himself and to change his self-concept , his basic attitude and his self-directed behavior; this potential can be tapped if it is possible to create a clearly defined climate of beneficial psychological attitudes. "
According to the supporters of humanistic psychology, mental disorders arise when environmental influences block self-development.
Furthermore, there are personalities in the history of psychology who are not originally assigned to humanistic psychology, but are closely related in their approach. The founder of logotherapy and existential analysis Viktor Frankl , the neo- psychoanalyst Erich Fromm with his humanistic psychoanalysis , Hans-Werner Gessmann with the humanistic psychodrama and Fritz Perls, influenced by Gestalt psychology , with his Gestalt therapy are often cited.
Basic assumptions of humanistic psychology are:
- Man is more than the sum of its parts
- Man lives in interpersonal relationships
- People live consciously and can sharpen their perceptions
- Man can decide
- Man is intentional
see also: Humanistic Psychotherapy
Reinhard Tausch , who has the merit of having introduced Carl Roger's conception and client-centered psychotherapy in the German-speaking world with his work on conversation psychotherapy, agrees that client-centered psychotherapy is a humane and gentle procedure that takes into account the client's world of experience. The term humanistic psychology got something negative because it was connected with a certain hostility towards science, especially towards empiricism and basic research . Responsible therapeutic work with clients in particular needs an empirical-scientific foundation.
An old criticism of counseling psychotherapy consisted in the fact that the disorder specificity of the etiology and treatment in relation to different disorder patterns was poorly elaborated. Instead, the inhibited or blocked self-actualization tendency was generally accepted as a disturbance trigger for everyone .
- Charlotte Bühler , Melanie Allen: Introduction to humanistic psychology , Ullstein 1987, ISBN 3-548-39053-6
- Helmut Quitmann: Humanistic Psychology. Central concepts and philosophical background , Hogrefe 1991, ISBN 3-8017-0234-0
- Association for Humanistic Psychology
- Working Group on Humanistic Psychotherapy (AGHPT)
- Society for Humanistic Psychology
- Historic Review of Humanistic Psychology - AHP. In: www.ahpweb.org. Retrieved June 22, 2016 .
- Jürg Stadelmann (1998), leadership under stress, Huber & Co Ag, Frauenfeld, ISBN 3-7193-1165-1
- H.-W. Gessmann: Humanistic Psychology and Humanistic Psychodrama . In: Humanistic Psychodrama , Volumes I - IV; Publishing house of the Psychotherapeutic Institute Bergerhausen, Duisburg, from 1996; ISBN 978-3-928524-31-5
- Humanistic Psychodrama , Volumes I - IV; Publishing house of the Psychotherapeutic Institute Bergerhausen, Duisburg, from 1996; ISBN 978-3-928524-31-5
- The Humanistic Psychodrama. International Journal of Humanistic Psychodrama ; June 1995, 1st year, issue 1
- H.-J. Möller and others: Psychiatry and Psychotherapy ; Springer, Berlin 2003; ISBN 3-540-25074-3
- Irvin Yalom: Existential Psychotherapy ; Edition Humanistic Psychology, Cologne, 1989; ISBN 978-3926176196 ; Pp. 30/31
- Reinhard Tausch, Annemarie Tausch: Conversational Psychotherapy ; Göttingen: Hogrefe, 9th edition, 1990
- Reinhard Tausch. In Ernst G. Wehner, Psychology in Self-Representations , Volume 3; Bern: Huber 1992; Pp. 275-394, here p. 291.