Jacques de Révigny

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Jacques de Révigny or Jacobus de Ravanis (* 1230/40 probably in Revigny-sur-Ornain , † 1296 in Ferentino ) was a legal scholar ( Legist ) and bishop of Verdun in the 13th century. He was one of the commentators .


Little is known of Révigny's life. Probably from the sixties of the 13th century he studied as a pupil of Jean de Monchy (Johannes de Monciaco) at the University of Orléans , where at that time an important school of secular and Roman law had established itself. As a student, he made a name for himself in 1260 as an opponent of the visiting professor Franciscus Accursii from the University of Bologna , whom he silenced in a dispute. Immediately afterwards he received a chair as professor in Orléans , which he held until at least 1270.

As archdeacon in Toul , Révigny was appointed bishop of Verdun by Pope Nicholas IV in 1289 (consecrated March 13, 1290), although the cathedral chapter had chosen a different candidate. This resulted in an ongoing conflict with the citizens of Verdun that shaped his entire term of office. Révigny died during a trip to Italy, where he wanted to present this conflict to the Pope.


Together with Pierre de Belleperche (Petrus de Bellapertica, † 1308), Révigny was one of the most important legal scholars of the 13th century at the Orléans School of Law, which in its time even put that of Bologna in the shade. Révigny dealt primarily with administrative law, both in secular as well as ecclesiastical practices. He was considered a critic of customary law in northern France and was also an advocate of Roman law . Together with Belleperche he wrote commentaries on several parts of the later so-called Corpus iuris civilis .

Furthermore, Révigny was a supporter of a French royal power, although he wanted to know the kingship within well-defined limits, unlike other legislators of his time, such as Jean de Blanot . His statement became known that France was not legally independent from the Holy Roman Empire and that the French king was therefore subject to the emperor. If the king does not recognize this, so Révigny, this is not his problem. Also, a baron should only be obliged to defend "his homeland" (fiefdom) and not to defend the "homeland of the king" (the kingdom). It should be noted, however, that Révigny remained a pure legal scholar throughout his life, who limited himself to studying the texts, but stayed away from political realities.

Révigny's most important legacy are his almost 150 written repetitions of the Codex Justinianus , the Digest and the Institutiones , a genre that has contributed greatly to the systematization and deepening of the learned law. The summary of the first legal dictionary ( Dictionarium iuris ) is also attributed to him. The most important mediators of his teachings were Belleperche and Cino da Pistoia († 1336/37), of which the latter ensured their dissemination, especially in Italy. In general, numerous doctrines of Révigny have only been passed on by Italian authors from the 14th century, of which Bartolus de Saxoferrato , a student of Cino, stands out in particular .

Published works

  • Lectura Institutionum (Pavia 1504, reprinted Bologna 1972), published under the name Bartolus de Saxoferrato
  • Lectura super Codice (Paris 1519, reprint Bologna 1967 and Frankfurt am Main 1968), published under the name Pierre de Belleperche
  • Les oeuvres: d'après 2 ms. de la Bibliothèque Nationale (annotated edition Paris 1899, digitized version )


Individual evidence

  1. According to other spellings de Ravenneio , de Revigny , de Revegnei . He is often incorrectly called by Ravenna .
predecessor Office successor
Henry III. by Granson Bishop of Verdun
Johann III. by Richericourt