Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès

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Jean Jacques Regis de Cambacérès, duc de Parme , lithograph by François Delpech , after a portrait by Nicolas-Eustache Maurin , Paris around 1830 (colorized). Cambacérès' signatureSignature Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès.PNG
Le Départ ("The Departure"): A royalist caricature from 1814, which Cambacérès dubbed Napoleon's side with his nickname Aunt (T) Urlurette - an allusion to his suspected homosexuality
Cambacérès' tomb in the Père Lachaise (Division 39) cemetery in Paris

Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès , Duke of Parma, (born October 18, 1753 in Montpellier , † March 8, 1824 in Paris ) was a French lawyer and statesman . From 1805 to 1814 and 1815 he was under Emperor Napoleon I. Prime Minister of France .


He was the son of Antoine de Cambacères, advisor at the Cour des Comptes , and his first wife Marie Rose Vassal. The family belonged to the nobility ( noblesse de robe ) of Montpellier. Of the total of eleven children, apart from Jean-Jacques, only his younger brother Étienne-Hubert de Cambacérès , who would later become a cardinal , survived . The later Napoleonic general Jean-Pierre-Hugues de Cambacérès was a half-brother Cambacérès from the father's second marriage.

Cambacérès became in 1772, still at the time of the Ancien Régime tax council at the Cour des Comptes and in 1791 president of the criminal court. On September 6, 1792 he was elected as a member of the Convention for the Hérault department , where he belonged to the moderate parliamentary group. On March 10, 1793, the welfare committee was formed at his suggestion . During this time he worked on the creation of a new civil code ( Projet de Code civil et discours préliminaire ), which served as the basis for the later Code Napoléon . After the 9th Thermidor in 1794 he was President of the Welfare Committee and in October 1796 President of the Council of Five Hundred . From 1799 he was Minister of Justice, after the 18th Brumaire VIII (November 9th 1799) second consul next to Napoleon Bonaparte and Charles-François Lebrun . In 1805, after Napoleon was made emperor, Archchancellor of the Empire ( archichancelier de l'Empire ) and in 1808 Duke of Parma , he played a major role in shaping the judiciary and internal administration of France.

In 1813 he became President of the Regency Council, which had been placed alongside the Empress Marie-Louise , who had been appointed regent in Napoleon's absence . During the rule of the Hundred Days he again took over the Ministry of Justice and the Presidium of the Chamber of Peers . After the second restoration he returned to Paris until he was expelled from the country in 1816 as an alleged regicide. He stayed in Brussels and Amsterdam until he was reinstated in all civil and political rights on May 13, 1818. Since then he has lived in seclusion in Paris, where he died in 1824.

Since 1803 he was a member of the Académie française .


  • Laurence Chatel de Brancion (Ed.): Mémoires inédits. Éclaircissements publiés par Cambacérès sur les principaux événements de sa vie politique . Paris 1999ff., ISBN 2-262-01595-3 ( autobiography )
  • Jean-Paul Delbert: Cambacérès. Unificateur de la franc-maçonnerie sous le Premier Empire , Lille 2005, ISBN 2-9511431-2-5 .
  • Jean-Louis Bory: Les cinq girouettes. Ou servitude et souplesses de son altesse sérénissime; le prince archichancelier de l'Empire Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, duc de Parme . Paris 2002, ISBN 2-913867-31-6 .
  • Laurence Chatel de Brancion (Ed.): Cambacérés. Fondateur de la justice modern; actes du colloque tenu à Montpellier… vendredi 26 et samedi 27 may 2000 . Saint-Rémy-en-l'Eau 2001, ISBN 2-903824-31-2 .
  • Laurence Chatel de Brancion: Cambacérès. Maître d'œuvre de Napoléon . Paris 2001, ISBN 2-262-01632-1 .
  • Laurence Chatel de Brancion: Cambacérès et ses Mémoires . Dissertation, University of Paris 1999.
  • Pierre-François Pinaud: Cambacérès. 1753-1824 . Paris 1996, ISBN 2-262-01149-4 .

Web links

Commons : Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Emmanuel Fureix: "La porte de derrière". Sodomie et incrimination politique: des caricatures contre Cambacérès (1814-1815) . In: Annales historiques de la Révolution française . No. 361 , 2010, p. 109–130 , doi : 10.4000 / ahrf.11704 (French, online ).
predecessor Office successor
André Dumont President of the French National Convention
October 7, 1794–22. October 1794
Pierre-Louis Prieur
Charles-Antoine Chasset President of the French Council of Five Hundred
October 22, 1796-20. November 1796
Nicolas-Marie Quinette de Rochemont
Pauline Bonaparte Duke of Parma
Marie Louise