Last mile (house connections)
The last mile ( English : last mile or final mile ) is the term used for electricity and gas supply networks as well as telecommunications networks (e.g. telephone network , cable TV , Internet ) as well as the last section of the line that leads to the house connection or the mail delivery. leads to the participant household. It is officially referred to as a subscriber line (TAL) , especially as part of the classic telephone network .
The last mile represents the bottleneck in international communication, because nowadays almost all exchanges are connected with several gigabit / s fiber optic cables, while the speed of the two-core copper lines on the last mile depends heavily on attenuation values, distance and advanced technology (e.g. Outdoor DSLAMs ).
The last mile is usually owned by regional, national or international monopoly companies (so-called established network operators ), whereby the cause can be both a former legal monopoly of state-owned companies and a natural monopoly of private-sector network operators.
Since the entirety of the network connections - especially in the area due to the low network density there - can only be duplicated at great expense, the ownership structure of the last mile will change at best in the longer term.
In order to give competitors without their own last mile access to the network connections, providers can obtain access to the network connections of the established operators through so-called unbundling for a fee to the owners of the last mile. The amount of these fees and the conditions of access are an ongoing point of contention, and the regulatory authorities are in the field of tension .
Last mile (delivery traffic, post, logistics)
The term was transferred from information and communication technology (telephone connection, internet connection) to logistics , post and delivery routes; there the part of the transport to the customer's doorstep is referred to as the “last mile”.
Efficient solutions for the last mile are being sought with the topic of parcel shipping, which is also increasing due to Internet trade . The increasing number of parcels should be distributed quickly and safely with little effort (personnel, time, routes, costs, prices). The actually classic question of logistics is expanded here by the variable customer (parcel recipient) factor. When can he be reached, how can multiple journeys be avoided, how can the workload of the parcel delivery service be reduced. Proposed and experimentally as well as practically tested or already implemented methods include parcel mailboxes , parcel machines , caretaker services and in-house parcel machines for example in residential complexes, delivery to the parcel shop , in the trunk or to the employer as well as agreement and communication of the delivery time.
A technical, spatial, structural or organizational solution is often sought. The random and voluntary acceptance and forwarding of a shipment by a neighbor, on the other hand, is an incalculable and incalculable factor for service providers and logisticians.
With the problems and recognizable current and future restrictions of urban traffic, new and sometimes creative solutions are being sought for actual transport. Parcel carriers, delivery services and postmen are to be supported by moving robots and supplemented by flying drones. Electric vehicles such as the already in use StreetScooter of Deutsche Post should postman, but also make logistics service providers, suppliers and craftsmen environmentally friendly over the last mile, new vehicles such as load wheels intended to relieve traffic routes and make it independent from the street noise.
In civil protection, the “last mile” describes the step from recognizing a danger, passing it on and disseminating it via warning channels (e.g. sirens or warning SMS) to the actual perception of the warnings by the people concerned. This assumes that you understand the warning message and can react accordingly. An example of a community-based system for overcoming the “last mile” is the municipal warning and information system KATWARN developed by the Fraunhofer Institute FOKUS and public insurers .
In rail transport, last mile describes the ability of electric locomotives to travel non-electrified sections of the route with the help of an additional diesel engine. This means that the additional use of shunting locomotives can be dispensed with.
This term is also important in connection with the use of electric scooters .
The expression “the last mile” is also used, especially in English-speaking countries, for executions for the way between the cell and the electric chair or similar. used. With this meaning, Stephen King wrote the novel The Green Mile , which was later made into a film under the same title .
- Length of mile
- ↑ last mile logistics at www.logistik-info.net
- ↑ Manager magazine , trunk delivery
- ↑ Golem.de , delivery robot carries loads for the postman
- ↑ Spiegel , delivery with drones
- ↑ National cycling plan and pilot project Ich-Ersezeze-Ein-Auto
- ↑ PDF on the pilot project Ich-Ersezeze-Ein-Auto
- ↑  , GITEWS
- ↑ Archived copy ( Memento of the original from June 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , KATWARN
- ↑ BOMBARDIER TRAXX AC3 last mile locomotive receives official approval in Austria. Bombardier , February 1, 2016, accessed January 23, 2017 .