Painting School (Art History)
The term painting school is sometimes used in art history to summarize painters of a specific time period and region who follow the same art style . The term came up mainly in the early days of art history, such as B. Cologne School of Painting . In the Kunst-Blatt 1828 it was said: "We understand from age, by this word, in its relation to painters and pictures, that those of a school are of a certain character and type of themselves in common". As in the case of the Düsseldorf Malerschule , the term Malerschule should not be understood as clearly defined, but rather an auxiliary term in art history.
Differentiation from workshop
In contrast to painting school , the term workshop is used in art history as a term for a group of painters in order to summarize the mostly unknown employees or students and direct successors of a certain teacher and painter. As in the case of the Wenceslas workshop , the term is also used to summarize artists and artisans who have remained anonymous and who seem to work together and at the same time. B. in a scriptorium . As can be seen in the example of the workshop in Athens in 894 , the term workshop is also not firmly defined in terms of art history.
Differentiation from artist associations
Painting schools or workshops are to be distinguished from artists' associations in which the artists have consciously and often officially joined forces to represent an art movement such as B. the Dresden Secession or American Abstract Artists .
List of painting schools as an art-historical term
For example, the following painting schools are mentioned in art history.
- Ada group ( court school of Charlemagne )
- Avignon School
- Barbizon School
- Beuron art school
- School of the Bidasoa
- Bohemian Painting School
- Bolognese school
- Danube School
- Düsseldorf School of Painting
- Ferraneser School
- Fontainebleau School
- Hague School
- Hudson River School
- Cologne painting school
- Laren School
- Latemse School
- Leipzig School
- Memmingen School
- Munich School
- Neapolitan school
- School of Olot
- École de Paris
- School of Pont-Aven
- Reichenau School
- School of Siena
- Tarnowo School
- Umbrian school
- Ulm School
- Weimar School of Painting
- Zurich School of Concrete
Differentiation from educational institutions
As in the case of the Düsseldorfer Malerschule , Malerschule can refer to a structured educational institution.
Differentiation from school as a succession of the new style of a single master
Without regional addition such as B. Rubens School or Rembrandt School can also describe a trend or certain painting style in art history in which artists work under the influence of the pictures of a style-forming individual master. They committed themselves to his style, often without ever being directly instructed by this master. Their own pictures, however, are very close to the style of the more famous forerunner and show the recognition that they themselves give this master through their imitation and adaptation.
- cf. Painting school . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Volume 13. Leipzig 1908, P. 180 P. 180
- z. B. Cologne School of Painting. Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Volume 11. Leipzig 1907, p. 282
- see also the entries on the painting schools in Pierer's Universal Lexicon, Volume 7. Altenburg 1859 (various entries)
- Art-Sheet No. 81 of October 9, 1828. The Art-Sheet appeared as a supplement to the morning paper for educated classes .