The Malerwinkelhaus (also Haus am Maintor , address Bachgasse 2 , former house number 31) is a listed building in the core town of Marktbreit in Lower Franconia . It was used as a trading house for a long time before the Malerwinkelhaus Marktbreit museum was housed here .
Until the 18th century
The history of the Malerwinkelhaus is closely linked to that of the town fortifications across the market . The main gate was built around 1600, and at the same time the Breitbach was surrounded. A few houses were built around the new fortifications, which should now be given a uniform appearance according to official specifications. A house probably already existed in 1570 on the site of the later Malerwinkelhaus, the so-called "Little Shopper on the Brucken".
The oldest component of today's house was then built in the course of the fortification. At that time it was called the house "at the main gate on the brook wall". It only had one storey and was subsequently expanded in two construction phases. The elements visible today mostly come from the end of the 18th century. The house is said to have been inhabited by three needles in the 17th century, although they are not mentioned in the sources .
The first verifiable residents of the house were the cloth shearer Peter Berthold and his wife Regina Susanna Rab from Kleinlangheim . Berthold came to the Main from 1663 as part of the promotion of the cloth trade by Johann Adolf Graf von Schwarzenberg and originally came from the Vogtland . The couple, who married in 1670, set up a sales and storage room for cut goods in the house . The location of the house at the intersection of several streets led to a rapid increase in the number of customers.
After Peter Berthold's death in 1678, his wife married the clerk Jakob Rößer, who came from Feuchtwangen . When Rößer had also died, Regina married Susanna again in 1690. This time the Segnitzer hacker's son Johann Christoph Marschall, who has already established an extension to the house. His stepson Georg Rößer rebuilt the house in 1705. With the son of Georg Rößer, however, the family disappears from the sources.
Next, the Württemberg merchant Johann Gottlieb Pfleiderer can be traced back to the later Malerwinkelhaus. He had married into the Günther merchant family, which was broad in the market, and opened a shop for spices , fat and colored goods in the house. Pfleiderer handed the shop over to his stepson Johann Adam Günther, who married the merchant's daughter Maria Magdalena Vogtherr. The family's children inherited the property in 1815.
The siblings Adam Günther (1785–1824) and Eleonora Friederike Günther (1791–1868), married Tauber, ran the shop together for some time. In 1819 the sister of his wife Adam Günther and her husband moved into the house. Maria Magdalena and Johann Ferdinand Unger from Ansbach lived here before their son Heinrich Unger bought the house "in front of the main gate" in 1839 from Adam Günther's widow for 2,400 guilders .
Several changes of ownership followed. Johann Martin May bought the property in 1863 before it was owned by the Müller family of merchants and wine merchants from 1878 to 1908 . At times up to 17 people lived in the Malerwinkelhaus, which was divided into several residential units. Between 1909 and 1912 the businessman Eugen Diemer owned the house before the couple Hüssner 1912 a grocery store einrichteten after for 24000 the house by the stream Mark had bought from Diemer.
In the meantime, the Thiele family's printing works were housed in the premises in 1925 . In 1925, however, the property was bought by Martha Wencker from Ansbach, who furnished several rental apartments. Katharina Amendt owned the house in 1928 and made several structural changes. At that time there was a garage in the middle part of the property. At the same time, a barber shop was operated in part of the house until 1936. Edmund Brand sold groceries on the ground floor from 1932.
During the Second World War , the facade of the house was partially destroyed, and initially only provisional repairs were made. In 1961 the Brand family, who had meanwhile acquired the house, made further changes. In 1961 the building was adapted to the requirements of a small self-service grocery store. During the construction of the motorway , workers were housed in the house. Hartwig Zobel acquired the Malerwinkelhaus in 1981.
Zobel sold the building on October 14, 1985 to the city of Marktbreit, which began renovating the building, which was in danger of collapsing, in 1987. In 1991 the future museum Malerwinkelhaus Marktbreit was brought into the premises . Today the role of women in the history of Marktbreits is illuminated in the exhibition in the house. Finds around the former Roman camp Marktbreit on the so-called Kapellenberg are also shown here.
The name Malerwinkelhaus is derived from the position of the house, which is a popular motif for artists between Breitbach and Maintor. However, the house was only given this name in the 1950s. At that time there was a café in the immediate vicinity of the half-timbered building that had that name. In the period that followed, the name was transferred to the house itself. Previously, there were various names in the place for the property, which was mostly described with its proximity to the main gate.
The house at Bachgasse 2 is classified as a historical building by the Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Monuments. In addition, underground remains of previous buildings are recorded as ground monuments . It is also part of the Altstadt Marktbreit building ensemble . Today it presents itself as a two-storey side eaves building with a steep saddle roof and half-timbering . The half-timbering was still hidden under a layer of plaster around 1900 and was only exposed in the 1920s.
The current building was built over the course of several centuries. A total of three construction phases can thus be identified. In essence, dendrochronological studies from the 1980s point to an original building from the 17th century. At the end of the 18th century, renovations were made that still characterize the house today. So the three characteristic dwelling houses were added at that time and on the brook side the house received its dormers .
- Simone Michel von Dungern: The house at the main gate. The checkered history of a building and its residents . In: Yearbook for the district of Kitzingen. In the spell of the Schwanberg 2013 . Dettelbach 2013. pp. 153-174.
- Simone Michel-von Dungern: Museum Malerwinkelhaus Marktbreit . In: Yearbook for the district of Kitzingen. In the spell of the Schwanberg 2012 . Dettelbach 2012. pp. 291-311.
- Michel von Dungern, Simone: Das Haus am Maintor . P. 153.
- Michel von Dungern, Simone: Das Haus am Maintor . P. 155.
- Michel von Dungern, Simone: Das Haus am Maintor . P. 162.
- Michel von Dungern, Simone: Das Haus am Maintor . P. 169 f.
- Michel von Dungern, Simone: Museum Malerwinkelhaus Marktbreit . P. 300.
- Michel von Dungern, Simone: Das Haus am Bach . P. 162.