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Classification according to ICD-10
G71 Primary myopathies
G72 Other myopathies
G73 * Diseases of the Neuromuscular Synapse and Muscle in Diseases Classified Elsewhere
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

Muscle diseases are referred to as myopathies ( Gr. "Muscle ailments"). As a rule, with the exception of cardiomyopathy , the striated skeletal muscles are meant. The main symptom of all myopathies is a weakness of the muscles . In pure myopathies, sensitivity is never affected. Other clinical pictures that are also associated with weakness of the muscles are to be distinguished from myopathies. These include diseases of the motor neuron (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy ) and diseases of the neuromuscular junction (such as myasthenia and the Lambert-Eaton syndrome ).

The medical history and distribution pattern are important for the diagnosis. The clinical suspicion of the presence of myopathy can be confirmed by electromyography and confirmed in a muscle biopsy . Molecular genetic investigations are becoming increasingly important in primary diagnostics . According to the ICD-10, the group of myopathies is divided into primary myopathies, myopathies in other underlying diseases and other myopathies. Another important group are the inflammatory myopathies.

Primary myopathies

Primary myopathies are diseases that are primarily based on a disease of the muscles.

  • Mitochondrial myopathies is a mitochondrial disease , that is a failure of the energy metabolism of mitochondria , is based. Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA have changed the mitochondria functionally, structurally or numerically.
  • Myofibrillar myopathies are a group of congenital muscle diseases that usually only become noticeable in middle adulthood. With them, a structural defect in certain proteins of the muscle cell leads to the clumping of these proteins and thus ultimately to the destruction of the muscle cell.

Myopathies in other underlying diseases

Myopathies can appear as a symptom of a variety of other underlying diseases , in particular:

  • Myopathies can occur with metabolic diseases. In particular, disorders of the energy metabolism are often noticeable in the muscles due to the high energy requirements. Important diseases are glycogen storage diseases and the group of lipid storage diseases .

Other myopathies

This group includes other myopathies triggered by exogenous substances.

  • Toxic myopathies are myopathies that are triggered by damage from exogenous toxins.

Inflammatory myopathies

Inflammatory myopathies can occur as part of autoimmune diseases or be caused by pathogens.


  • Helga Kessler: Strong Lives - How Muscle Sick People Cope with Everyday Life. rüffer & rub, Zurich 2009. ISBN 978-3-907625-46-0

Individual evidence

  1. L. Ceglia: Vitamin D and skeletal muscle tissue and function. In: Molecular Aspects of Medicine . Volume 29, Number 6, December 2008, pp. 407-414, ISSN  0098-2997 . doi: 10.1016 / j.mam.2008.07.002 . PMID 18727936 (Review).

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