Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins (mold toxins). The corresponding molds are widespread in nature, e.g. B. some Aspergillus and Penicillium species such as A. ochraceus or P. verrucosum .
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most common and important of the ochratoxins.
|Surname||Ochratoxin A.||Ochratoxin B||Ochratoxin C||Ochratoxin TA|
|other names||( R ) - N - ((5-chloro-3,4-
3-methyl-1-oxo-1 H -
benzo [ c ] pyran-7-yl) -
|Molecular formula||C 20 H 18 ClNO 6||C 20 H 19 NO 6||C 22 H 22 ClNO 6||C 20 H 18 ClNO 7|
|Molar mass||403.81 g mol −1 g mol −1||369.37 g mol −1||431.87 g mol −1||419.81 g mol −1|
|description||white to yellowish powder|
|Melting point||169 ° C|
|H and P phrases||300-351-413||301-315-319-335||see above||see above|
|no EUH phrases||no EUH phrases||see above||see above|
|264-281-301 + 310||261-301 + 310-305 + 351 + 338||see above||see above|
|Toxicological data||20 mg kg −1 ( LD 50 , rat , oral )|
OTA can already be formed during plant growth, but, like all mold toxins, predominantly arises during faulty processing. It occurs due to errors in harvesting, drying, further processing, storage and transport, e.g. B. Too moist storage of the plant products. It is found primarily in grains, legumes , coffee, beer, grape juice, raisins and wine, cocoa products, nuts and spices.
Ochratoxin A often does not occur as a single substance, but as a mixture with other mycotoxins as an impurity, e.g. B. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenon (ZEA) formed by Fusarium species , Aflatoxin and Citrinin formed by Aspergillus and Penicillium species.
Ochratoxin A causes kidney disease and is carcinogenic in rats and mice .
For the analysis in animal feeds a can high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector are used, with a previous purification on immunoaffinity occurs.
- ↑ Ochratoxin B data sheet from Sigma-Aldrich , accessed on May 4, 2011 ( PDF ).
- ↑ Ochratoxin A data sheet from Sigma-Aldrich , accessed on May 4, 2011 ( PDF ).
- ^ Communication from the Bavarian State Office for Health and Food Safety
- ↑ EFSA evaluates ochratoxin A in food
- ↑ Entry on ochratoxins. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on June 16, 2014.
- ↑ Animal feed - determination of ochratoxin A in animal feed by purification on an immunoaffinity column and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection; German version EN 16007: 2011