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Lower reaches of the Pinios in the Tembi Valley

Lower reaches of the Pinios in the Tembi Valley

location Thessaly ( Greece )
River system Pinios
source Korakas and Tsekouri
muzzle Thermaic Gulf ( Aegean Sea ) Coordinates: 39 ° 56 ′ 2 "  N , 22 ° 43 ′ 3"  E 39 ° 56 ′ 2 "  N , 22 ° 43 ′ 3"  E
Mouth height m

length 217 km
Left tributaries Mourganis , Litheos , Neochoritis Titarisios
Right tributaries Klinovitikos , Portaikos , Enipeas
Big cities Larisa
Medium-sized cities Kalambaka , Trikala
Upper course of the Pinios in the Thessalian lowlands

Upper course of the Pinios in the Thessalian lowlands

The Pinios ( Greek Πηνειός , older German transcription Peneios ; Latin name Peneus ; old name Salamvrias or Salambria ) is the 217 km long main river of the Thessaly region in Greece . It is one of the longest rivers in Greece and irrigates and drains the lowlands of Thessaly.

The Pinios rises with two source rivers from the southern Pindos Mountains. The northern source river Malakasiotiko rises between the village of Platanitsos and south of the village of Milia on the southeast flank of the Mavrovouni mountain, east of the well-known Katara pass and the village of Metsovo to the southwest . East of Metsovo and immediately south of the village of Malakasi, the second source river, the Baltos, rises at the northeast foothills of the Lakmos massif or at the transition between Lakmos and Mavrovouni with the peaks Plagia (approx. 1600  m ), Fourka ( 1730  m ), Zigourotopia (altitude 1811  m ), Nekrokratima (altitude approx. 1500  m ), Kopanes (altitude 1890  m ), Gavogianaki ( 1495  m ), Kokkino ( 1576  m ) and Dokimi (altitude 1974  m ). The southern area of ​​the source river Baltas is also known as Ennea Vryses (in German nine wells or water points ). The eastern flanks of the Plagia, Psiloma, Fourka, Zigourotopia and Dokimi summit chains also form the watershed between the Pinios river basin in the east and the Arachthos basin in the west. Both source rivers arise in the northwestern corner of Thessaly in the Trikala regional district .

North of the village of Matoneri and south of the village of Panagia, the two source rivers unite to form the Malakasiotikos River (named after the village of Malakasi). Coming from the east, this flows in a soft curve to the southeast to the south of the village of Mourgani, northwest of the city of Kalambaka . There flows from the south from the valley between the west side of the Kerketio massif and the east flank of the southern Pindos mountain ridge with the peaks Kokkino Lithari, Tsatsouli, Papanika and Neraida, the river Klinovitikos in the Malakasiotikos. About one kilometer further east of Mourgani, the river Ion (Mourgani) meets the Malakasiotikos coming from the north.

From the mouth of the Ion downstream, the river is called the Pinios and widens significantly through the aforementioned tributaries. In addition to the widening, the river turns about 3 km northwest of the Kalambaka to the south-southeast and passes the city of Kalambaka with the Meteora monasteries in the west and south. At the height of the southern parts of the city of Kalambaka, not only the Pinios but also its plain widens significantly and becomes the north-western tip of the Thessalian lowlands. West of Trikala near the village of Parapotamos, the Pinios receives another tributary from the south of the Kerketio massif, the Portaikos.

The city of Trikala is flowed around from the north-northwest in an arc to the east at a distance of approx. 5 km. After the completed arch around the city of Trikala, the Pinios flows in an easterly direction with a non-canalised river bed south of the Antichasia and Zarkou mountain ranges further east. In addition to the aforementioned mountain ranges, it forms the northern boundary of the Thessalian lowlands. North of the village of Marathea, the river Litheos flows into the Pinios from the west after flowing through the town of Trikala . A few kilometers further east is the mouth of the Neochoritis River, which comes from the north, southeast of the ruins of the ancient city of Farkadon (today's village of Klokotos) and southwest of the current city of Farkadona . Between these two mouths of tributaries, the river Karditsiotikos (flows through the city of Karditsa ) coming from the southwest reaches the Pinios. South of Farkadona and north of the town of Keramidi, the Enipeas River meets the Pinios when coming from the south.

East of Farkadona after the confluence of the Enipeas, the Pinios enters a valley between the southwestern foothills of the Zarkou and the northern flank of Mount Titanos. In the subsequent small plain of Kilada, the Pinios turns its course from a west-east to a south-north direction for about 10 km, whereupon the flow direction changes again to the original west-east direction west of the village of Amygdala . After this "zigzag" the Pinios flows in meanders from the west towards the city of Larisa . In the area of ​​the city of Larisa, the Pinios divides into two arms. The resulting river island houses a district of Larisa including the Alkazar city park and the Alkazar stadium located in it.

In the north of the city of Larisa, the Pamisos river, coming from the southeast of the Thessalian lowlands - including the area of ​​the meanwhile dried up Karla Lake north of Volos - meets the Pinios. After this inflow, the Pinios again changes its direction to the north and flows towards the southern entrance of the Tembi Valley. Before reaching the southern entrance to the Tembi valley, the Titarisios river flows into the Pinios, coming from the west, between the villages of Rodia and Mavrolithos.

Between the ancient city of Gonnoi (today's Gonni) and the village of Evangelismos, the Pinios enters the Tembi Valley with a flow direction east-northeast and flows through this bottleneck between the Ossa Mountains (or Kissavos) in the south and Olympus in the north for a length of approx. 8 km. The river valley reaches a minimum width of 40 m. In addition to the Pinios and its riverbed, the main Greek railway line from Thessaloniki via Larisa to Athens and the Autobahn 1 also use this passage between Olympus and Ossa. North of the ruins of ancient Omolion, the Pinios divides into two main estuary arms and flows into the Aegean Sea at the southern end of the Thermaic Gulf .

In relation to the ancient landscapes of Thessaly, the Pinios flows through the plains of Hestiaotis and Pelasgiotis . In relation to the modern administrative structure of Greece, the Pinios flows through the regional districts of Trikala and Larisa and thus runs exclusively in the north of the administrative region of Thessaly.


Web links

Commons : Pinios  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files