Reichstag election December 1924

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May 1924Reichstag election December 19241928
(in %)
Z / BVP c
Gains and losses
compared to May 1924
 % p
Z / BVP c
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
c March 1924: Z 13.4% BVP 3.2%
i March 1924: LL
45 131 32 4th 69 19th 12 51 8th 103 14th 
A total of 493 seats

The Reichstag election of December 7, 1924 was the election for the 3rd German Reichstag of the Weimar Republic . Compared to the May 1924 election, it ended with a certain stabilization of the state-supporting parties and marked a clear defeat for the extreme right and left.

Background and election campaign

Election advertising by the DVP on election Sunday in Berlin
Electoral advertising by the KPD on election Sunday in Berlin

In August 1924, the Reichstag had adopted the London Agreement regulating reparations with the help of parts of the DNVP . The attempt to reintroduce the agricultural tariffs suspended in 1914 as thanks for the support of the right-wing parties failed because of the obstruction of the left-wing parties that left parliament. At the same time, pressure on Wilhelm Marx's government from the bourgeois right increased to give up consideration for the Social Democrats and to expand the government to the right. The Chancellor , however, had considerable reservations and had to reckon with resistance from the DDP and parts of the center . The very grand coalition that Marx was striving for , including the SPD and DNVP, soon proved to be an illusion. Other coalition options also had little chance of success. A continuation of the previous minority government was not an alternative either, since a successful vote of no confidence was considered likely. Therefore, on October 11, 1924, the Reichstag was dissolved and new elections were scheduled for December 7, 1924.

While the May 1924 election was still largely determined by the effects of the social consequences of inflation and stabilization, the December election took place at a time of economic boom. This was in particular the result of the foreign loans flowing into Germany. Unemployment, which had risen sharply again in the summer of 1924, fell significantly in the autumn. In July were still over 12% of the union organized workers unemployed, it was in November, only 7.2%. Wages rose significantly and working hours also fell in some cases.

Although this also showed political calm, the extreme parties on the left and right stuck to their radical course. The Red Front Fighters Association , founded in July 1924 , primarily attacked the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold , founded in February .

The extreme right was represented by the National Socialist Freedom Party founded in August 1924 . In this nationalist forces and in particular the North German National Socialists around Erich Ludendorff and Albrecht von Graefe had come together. In addition, other competing groups emerged. Adolf Hitler , who was still in custody, had stayed out of the disputes among his supporters.

In particular the DNVP and the SPD could hope to benefit from the expected losses of the extreme parties. However, both had internal party problems. In the DNVP, opponents of the London Agreement rebelled against the party leadership. For this reason, too, the chairman Oskar Hergt resigned and was replaced by Johann Friedrich Winckler . In their call for elections it said, among other things: "... our will is stronger than ever: to create a Germany free from Jewish and French rule, free from parliamentary clique and democratic capital rule." The party's propaganda was primarily aimed at the voters of the Völkisch and National Socialists .

Within the SPD, the Saxon conflict over the coalition of the Saxon SPD under Max Heldt with the DDP and the DVP still played a major role. The proponents were also in conflict with resolutions at the Reich level.


Friedrich Ebert at the polling station

The outcome of the December election differed from that of May in that the radical parties were much less important. The wing parties were severely weakened. The DNVP was able to benefit slightly from this and the SPD significantly more. The DNVP's share of the vote rose from 19.5% to 20.5%. The SPD grew from 20.5% to 26%. The KPD fell from 12.6% to 9% and the National Socialists and Völkische together fell from 6.5% to 3%. In the area of ​​the DDP and DVP as well as the center and the Bavarian People's Party , the changes were minor.

Of the small interest parties, the economic party was particularly successful. It improved from 1.7% to 2.3%.

The DNVP won at the expense of the Volkisch National Socialist forces. Social democracy profited from the KPD's losses. It is possible that the SPD was also able to win voters who had migrated to the right-wing camp in May.

Government formation

The election result only allowed two options for a government to be formed. One was a grand coalition including the SPD and the other was a right-wing bourgeois bloc. Chancellor Marx was skeptical of a right-wing cabinet. Criticism also came from his party, the center. In January 1925, Marx returned the commission to form a government to President Friedrich Ebert . Instead, he commissioned Hans Luther . Originally, this wanted to form a cabinet of experts, instead it included ministers of the DNVP, DVP, BVP and the center. Otto Geßler was still nominally a member of the DDP.


Political party Votes (absolute) Votes (in percent) Votes (change) Sit in the Reichstag modification
Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 7,881,041 26.0% +5.5% 131 +31
German National People's Party (DNVP) 6,205,802 20.5% +1.0% 103 +8
German Center Party (Center) 4,118,849 13.6% + 0.2% 69 +4
German People's Party (DVP) 3,049,064 10.1% + 0.9% 51 +6
Communist Party of Germany - Communists (KPD) 2,709,086 8.9% −3.7% 45 −17
German Democratic Party (DDP) 1,919,829 6.3% + 0.6% 32 +4
Bavarian People's Party (BVP) 1,134,035 3.7% + 0.5% 19th +3
National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB) (United Lists of the
German National Freedom Party (DVFP) and the
National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP))
907.242 3.0% −3.6% 14th −18
Economic party of the German middle class 692.963 2.3% + 0.6% 12 +5
Landbund 499.383 1.6% −0.4% 8th −2
Bavarian farmers and medium-sized businesses association 312,442 1.0% + 0.3% 5 +2
German-Hanoverian Party (DHP) 262,691 0.9% −0.2% 4th −1
Others 597,665 2.0% −0.7% 0 ± 0
Total 30.290.092 100.0%   493 +21

See also


  • Gerhard A. Ritter (Hrsg.): History of the workers and the workers' movement in Germany since the end of the 18th century. Volume 10: Heinrich August Winkler : The appearance of normality. Workers and the labor movement in the Weimar Republic 1924 to 1930. Dietz, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-8012-0094-9 .
  • Heinrich August Winkler: Weimar 1918–1933. The history of the first German democracy. Revised edition. Beck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-44037-1 .
  • Ludger Grevelhörster: A short history of the Weimar Republic. 1918-1933. An overview of the problem history. 4th edition, special edition. Aschendorff, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-402-05363-2 ( Aschendorff Paperbacks ).

Individual evidence

  1. The German Empire. Reichstag election December 1924 Andreas Gonschior
  2. The German Empire. Reichstag election May 1924 Andreas Gonschior

Web links