Rye (genus)

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Rye (Secale cereale), illustration

Rye ( Secale cereale ), illustration

Order : Sweet grass (Poales)
Family : Sweet grasses (Poaceae)
Subfamily : Pooideae
Tribe : Triticeae
Genre : rye
Scientific name

Rye ( Secale ) is a genus of plants in the sweet grass family (Poaceae). The grain type rye ( Secale cereale ) is of economic importance as a cultivated plant.


The representatives of the genus are annual , biennial or perennial grasses. The ligule is a short, trimmed and membranous border. The leaf blades are flat or rolled up.

The inflorescence is usually a simple spike , which is densely and laterally compressed, and stands individually at the tip of the stalk. The spikelets are double-rowed, with one spikelet on each shoulder of the spikelet axis. The spikelet is sessile and two-flowered. There is a stem-like extension above the florets. The florets are hermaphroditic. There are seldom three hermaphroditic flowers or one or two sterile flowers over the two fertile flowers. The glumes are subulate, keeled and single-nerved. The lemmas are lanceolate, keeled and five-nerved. On the keel there is stiff hair that protrudes like a comb. The lemma has a long, straight, rough awn .


The representatives of the genus occur mainly in the temperate areas of Europe and Asia.


Rye field ( Secale cereale )

The genus Secale is within the family of grasses in the subfamily Pooideae , tribe provided Triticeae.

The information on the number of species varies between 3 and 8, depending on whether some plant species are viewed as subspecies or as separate species. Grin lists four types, R. Govaerts nine:

  • Secale africanum Stapf (Syn .: Secale strictum subsp. Africanum (Stapf) K. Hammer ): It occurs in the Capensis.
  • Secale anatolicum Boiss. (Syn .: Secale strictum subsp. Anatolicum (Boiss.) K. Hammer ): It occurs from southern Greece to Iran.
  • Rye ( Secale cereale L. ). One can differentiate between the following subspecies, which are not differentiated by R. Govaerts:
    • Secale cereale subsp. ancestrale zhuk. : The homeland is western Turkey.
    • Secale cereale subsp. cereale
    • Secale cereale subsp. rigidum Vavilov & Antropov :; The home is Turkestan.
    • Secale cereale subsp. tetraploidum Kobyl. : Is only known in culture.
    • Secale cereale subsp. tsitsinii Kobyl. : Is only known in culture.
  • Secale ciliatoglume (Boiss.) Grossh. (Syn .: Secale strictum subsp. Ciliatoglume (Boiss.) K. Hammer ): It occurs from Turkey to Iran.
  • Secale iranicum Kobyl. : It occurs in western Iran.
  • Secale montanum cast. (Syn .: Secale strictum (C. Presl) C. Presl , Secale kuprijanovii Grossh. ): It occurs from the Mediterranean region to Pakistan.
  • Secale segetale (Zhuk.) Roshev. (Syn .: Secale afghanicum (Vavilov) Roshev. , Secale cereale subsp. Dighoricum Vavilov ): It occurs from the Caucasus to northwestern China and the western Himalayas.
  • Secale sylvestre host : The home is Hungary, Southeast and Eastern Europe to Central Asia.
  • Secale vavilovii Grossh. : The homeland is Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran.


  • Siegmund Seybold (Ed.): Schmeil-Fitschen interactive (CD-ROM), Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2001/2002, ISBN 3-494-01327-6 .

Web links

Commons : Rye ( Secale )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Chen Shouliang et al .: Poaceae . In: Flora of China , Volume 22. Online at eFloras.org , accessed December 7, 2016.
  2. ^ A b Manfred A. Fischer , Karl Oswald, Wolfgang Adler: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol. 3rd, improved edition. State of Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz 2008, ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9 .
  3. Poaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
  4. ^ Secale In: Flora of Pakistan . (on-line)
  5. a b c d e f g h Secale , List of species in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  6. a b c d e f g h Rafaël Govaerts (ed.): Secale. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved September 3, 2018.