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Canine spleen hemangiosarcoma, surgical site
Human skull with extensive damage from a sarcoma (Hunterian Museum, Glasgow)

The sarcoma (from ancient Greek σάρκωμα sarcoma to σάρξ sarx , "flesh", "soft tissue" and -om " tumor "), formerly known as meat plant called, is a malignant tumor of cancer-like character, of mesenchymal emanates tissue and early in the Blood vessels ( hematogenous ) metastasized .

Together with the malignant tumors of the cover epithelium ( carcinoma ) and diseases of the blood and bone marrow ( leukemia and lymphoma ), sarcomas belong to the group of malignant tumor diseases ( cancer diseases ). Sarcomas are much rarer than carcinomas and only make up about 1% of all malignancies in humans. The exact origin of the sarcomas is the connective and supporting tissue (bones, cartilage and adipose tissue) or the muscle tissue .

According to the current WHO classification, sarcomas are divided into around 100 different entities . These differ according to their (partially) assumed cell lineage , their molecular genetic changes, their morphology and their biology. The exact classification of a sarcoma in the appropriate diagnostic group is of great importance for further treatment, as the individual entities have a different risk of recurrence and daughter tumors ( metastases ). Sarcomas mostly metastasize via the bloodstream. We can distinguish two large groups: sarcomas of the skeletal system and sarcomas of soft tissues ( english soft tissue ). There are also carcinosarcomas, i.e. mixed tumors that contain both malignant epithelial cells (= carcinoma) and malignant mesenchymal cells (= sarcoma). This includes, for example, the malignant mesodermal mixed tumor of the uterus or ovary, also called Müllerian mixed tumor . In the case of extremely dedifferentiated carcinomas, the histological picture is similar to a sarcoma. One speaks z. B. of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma . Molecularly, however, it can be demonstrated that the tumor is epithelial, i.e. carcinoma.

Skeletal system sarcomas

Soft tissue sarcomas

See also

Web links

Commons : Sarcoma  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Sarcoma  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Willibald Pschyrembel (founder): Pschyrembel - Clinical Dictionary . Ed .: Robert N. Braun. 259th edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-11-016522-8 .
  2. EC Borden, LH Baker, RS Bell, V. Bramwell, GD Demetri, BL Eisenberg, CD Fletcher, JA Fletcher, M. Ladanyi, P. Meltzer, B. O'Sullivan, DR Parkinson, PW Pisters, S. Saxman, S. Singer, M. Sundaram, AT van Oosterom, J. Verweij, J. Waalen, SW Weiss, MF Brennan: Soft tissue sarcomas of adults: state of the translational science . In: Clin Cancer Res . Vol. 9, No. 6 , June 2003, p. 1941-1956 , PMID 12796356 .
  3. W. Boecker et al .: Pathology . 3. Edition. Elsevier Publishing House.
  4. Koji Matsuo, Yutaka Takazawa, Malcolm S Ross, Esther Elishaev, Mayu Yunokawa: Proposal for a Risk-Based Categorization of Uterine Carcinosarcoma . In: Annals of Surgical Oncology . tape 25 , no. 12 , 2018, ISSN  1534-4681 , p. 3676-3684 , doi : 10.1245 / s10434-018-6695-z , PMID 30105438 .
  5. Ali Reza Golshayan, Saby George, Daniel Y. Heng, Paul Elson, Laura S Wood: Metastatic sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Targeted Therapy . In: Journal of Clinical Oncology . tape 27 , no. 2 , January 10, 2009, ISSN  0732-183X , p. 235–241 , doi : 10.1200 / JCO.2008.18.0000 ( [accessed June 17, 2019]).