The sarcoma (from ancient Greek σάρκωμα sarcoma to σάρξ sarx , "flesh", "soft tissue" and -om " tumor "), formerly known as meat plant called, is a malignant tumor of cancer-like character, of mesenchymal emanates tissue and early in the Blood vessels ( hematogenous ) metastasized .
Together with the malignant tumors of the cover epithelium ( carcinoma ) and diseases of the blood and bone marrow ( leukemia and lymphoma ), sarcomas belong to the group of malignant tumor diseases ( cancer diseases ). Sarcomas are much rarer than carcinomas and only make up about 1% of all malignancies in humans. The exact origin of the sarcomas is the connective and supporting tissue (bones, cartilage and adipose tissue) or the muscle tissue .
According to the current WHO classification, sarcomas are divided into around 100 different entities . These differ according to their (partially) assumed cell lineage , their molecular genetic changes, their morphology and their biology. The exact classification of a sarcoma in the appropriate diagnostic group is of great importance for further treatment, as the individual entities have a different risk of recurrence and daughter tumors ( metastases ). Sarcomas mostly metastasize via the bloodstream. We can distinguish two large groups: sarcomas of the skeletal system and sarcomas of soft tissues ( english soft tissue ). There are also carcinosarcomas, i.e. mixed tumors that contain both malignant epithelial cells (= carcinoma) and malignant mesenchymal cells (= sarcoma). This includes, for example, the malignant mesodermal mixed tumor of the uterus or ovary, also called Müllerian mixed tumor . In the case of extremely dedifferentiated carcinomas, the histological picture is similar to a sarcoma. One speaks z. B. of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma . Molecularly, however, it can be demonstrated that the tumor is epithelial, i.e. carcinoma.
Skeletal system sarcomas
Soft tissue sarcomas
- Neurogenic sarcoma
- Kaposi's sarcoma
- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
- Page about sarcomas (www.sarkome.de)
- Information for sarcoma patients (www.sarkom-info.de)
- Bone sarcomas: diagnosis, therapy and prognosis
- Soft tissue sarcomas: an overview
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