It is separated from the Gulf of Corinth by the Isthmus of Corinth . Since 1893, however, it has been linked to that through the construction of the Corinth Canal . In the area of the Saronic Gulf are the islands of Salamis , Aegina , Angistri , Poros , the Diapories archipelago and the Methana peninsula . In front of the Saronic Gulf, in the transition area to the Argolic Gulf, there are also the islands of Hydra and Dokos .
The name is based on the mythical King Saron , who, according to legend , chased a doe into the sea near the Psifaean Sea (today Psifta, eastern Peloponnese) and drowned it. His sanctuary was located near the brackish lake. The Saronic Gulf and the regions bordering it ( Attica , Peloponnese ) are the cradle of European culture. The first prehistoric sanctuaries and cities (Athens, Aegina and others) were located here. The sea battle of Salamis against the Persians, which was successful for the Greeks, had a decisive influence on the development of Europe.
Geologically, the Saronic Gulf is interesting because it is the northwesternmost branch of the Cycladic Arc with its volcanoes that are still active today. In the area of the Saronic Gulf are the volcanic areas of Krommyonia (Isthmus of Corinth), Aegina, Methana and Poros. The region is still endangered by tectonic changes ( earthquakes and volcanic eruptions ).