Slow worm ( Anguis fragilis )
|Advocate , 1900|
The sneaky (Anguimorpha) are a taxon of the squamata (Squamata), to which almost 200 different types of lizard and forms as different as the native slowworm ( Anguis fragilis ) and the large Indonesian Komodo dragon ( Varanus komodoensis ) belong. All creepers occurring in Europe belong to the family of the creeps (Anguidae). In addition to the (western) slowworm, there are the eastern slowworm ( Anguis colchica ) in Eastern Europe, the Greek slowworm ( Anguis graeca ), the Peloponnese slowworm ( Anguis cephallonica ), the Italian slowworm ( Anguis veronensis ) and the Scheltopusik ( Pseudopus apodus ) the Balkans.
Most of the creeping species have a typical lizard shape. But there are also elongated forms, the legs of which are stunted to small stumps, and snake-like legless species. All crawlers have firm teeth that are not hollow at the base. New teeth grow alternately, i.e. between - and not below - the old teeth. The tongue of the crawlers is divided into a front and rear section by a fold. As with snakes , the front part is deeply split in many species and can be pulled back into the rear part.
The taxon of the sneaky crawfish was established in 1900 by the German anatomist Max Fürbringer and today includes eight recent families of lizard-like scale crawfish. Within the scale reptiles, the crawlers belong together with the iguanas (Iguania) and the snakes (Serpentes) to the Toxicofera , which have the ability to form toxins . The sneaky and iguana-like sister groups , the unnamed clade formed by both taxa , is the sister group of the snakes. However, toxins have so far only been detected in the creepy lizards and some monitor lizards.
Within the creeping species, two clades can be distinguished, one with creeping, ringed creeping, double-tongue creeping and the hump lizard, which is called Anguioidea or Diploglossa in many systematics, and the second with monitor lizards, deaf monitor and the extinct mosasaur, which was named Platynota or Varanoidea . Investigations on a molecular genetic basis show that the Chinese crocodile tail lizard, which used to belong to the humpback lizard, also belongs to this group. The position of the lizards remains controversial.
The fossil record of the creepers goes back 130 million years to the Lower Cretaceous and includes all recent families as well as numerous extinct groups, including the giant marine mosasaurs from the Upper Cretaceous.
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- Robert Alexander Pyron, Frank T. Burbrink, John J. Wiens: A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. In: BMC Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 13, 2013, 93, doi : 10.1186 / 1471-2148-13-93 .
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