Main entrance of the Siida Museum
|place||Inari , Inarintie 46, Finland|
|opening||1963 (open-air museum)
April 1, 1998 (museum)
|Number of visitors (annually)||50,000 (2002)|
Sámi museum - Saamelaismuseosäätiö (Sámi Museum Foundation)
The Siida - Sámi Museum and Nature Center ( Finnish Siida - Saamelaismuseo yes Luontokeskus , Sami Siida - Sámemusea yes luondduguovddáš ) is a history and culture of the seeds (own name: Sámi ) and nature in the northern Finnish Lapland museum dedicated Banquet Center in Inari , Finland .
The nomadic , on reindeer breeding based lifestyle of the Sámi has been since the 17th century increasingly through from the south advancing, agriculture be operated population of the countries Fennoskandinaviens and Russia pushed back and the resulting nation-state structures (boundaries, state administration) and restricted. At the end of the Lapland War (1944/45) the troops of the German Wehrmacht used the " scorched earth " tactic on their retreat to northern Finland in the direction of Norway, which was still occupied by the German Empire . H. the villages and buildings along the streets were almost completely destroyed. This also affected the Sámi settlements, whose culture in Finland was on the verge of extinction. In 1945 the Samii Liitto was founded as a political and cultural association in Österbotten , where they had been evacuated during the Second World War . At the initiative of Johan Nuorgam , it was decided to create a museum where the cultural assets that still exist should be collected and exhibited. Inari was chosen as the location, which until it was destroyed in the war had been the capital of the region and a center of the Sami population of Finland.
The Inari Sámi Museum was founded in 1959. First, they looked for wooden buildings that were rebuilt on the site and collected art and everyday objects. The first structures were completed in 1960. In the summer of 1963, this first Sámi museum in Fennos Scandinavia was opened as an open-air museum . The Samii Litto ran the museum under the direction of Nuorgam until 1986, when the Sámi museum - Saamelaismuseosäätiö foundation was created , to which it was entrusted to ensure further development and future preservation. From now on, the management included representatives of the Sámi as well as representatives of the Finnish Ministry of Education Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriö and the municipality of Inari . At the same time, from the early 1980s, the planning of a museum building and a permanent exhibition based on modern concepts on the history and culture of the Sámi and the nature of the region began. This was also necessary for conservation reasons in order to better protect the exhibits and to be able to present them to visitors throughout the year, which was not possible in the unheated buildings of the open-air museum. The new museum building next to the existing site was opened on April 1, 1998, based on plans by Juhani Pallasmaa . The name was taken from the Sami name Siida for a pasture and hunting area shared by several family groups.
The aim of the museum is to serve not only the collection, conservation and exhibition of historical cultural assets, but also as a center for research and documentation of the contemporary culture of the Sámi, whereby not only the Finnish, but all members of this indigenous people are included, including those in Norway , Russia and Sweden living (see Sápmi ). Since the Second World War, Inari has also had an office of the Finnish Sameting , the Sami-language broadcaster YLE Radio Sámi of the Finnish public service broadcaster Yleisradio , the Sámi Education Center, the Sámi Duodji Handicraft Association , the Association of Friends of Sámi Art and other Sami people Organizations with which the museum cooperates. In the course of the expansion of the autonomy of the Sámi, the museum is to receive the status of a national museum .
The museum is in both the permanent collection on display and in the temporary exhibitions in the concept of human ecology oriented. The three main thematic areas thus form the natural environment in the cold temperate climate of the boreal ecozone in which the Sámi culture emerged (cf. Nordkalotte ), the society that developed in the process, and the relationship between the individual and this society.
Based on the earliest human settlement in the region after the last Ice Age , the Vistula Cold Age , in the Neolithic around 10,000 years ago, a chronological overview of the history and the gradual development of the Sámi culture is presented in a separate hall with an introductory exhibition. Society and - languages shown in the interplay with the geographical and climatic conditions.
The main hall of the museum presents the culture of the Sámi from the recent past to the present day, showing social life in close connection with nature and the changing of the seasons. As a people who are still partly nomadic and traditionally live from reindeer herding, the alternation of snow and ice in winter and the vegetation seasons in spring and summer are of central importance. For example, the time of the mosquitoes in the warm months is also the time when the reindeer fleeing from the insects are rounded up and tagged. In late summer the hay was brought in and prepared for further processing into winter shoes. The natural history part of the museum, which is closely interwoven with the cultural areas, is curated in cooperation with the Finnish forest authority Metsähallitus , which also looks after the national parks in Finland . Also shown are the interactions with the Scandinavian kingdoms advancing from the south ( history of Scandinavia ) and the contacts with European peoples resulting from trade relations, which found their expression in handicrafts and in the suppression of shamanism by Christianity .
In the summer months, the open-air museum offers a tour with around 50 objects, from traditional, fixed as well as movable buildings to constructions for stockpiling to those used for hunting or reindeer herding.
In addition to the permanent exhibitions, the Siida Museum has also shown temporary exhibitions since it opened. The first, in the opening year 1998, was dedicated to five Sami artists under the title Geaidit ("Magician Women"). Other special exhibitions showed, for example, photographs from the time at the end of the polar night (“The Blue Moment”), were dedicated to modern life in the region (“Over the unbroken snow - 50 years of snowmobile in Finland”) or related cultures (“A people of Tundra - The Nenets Culture ”).
- Jukka Pennanen, Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi (Eds.): Siiddastallan - From Lapp Communities to Modern Sámi Life . Siida Sámi Museum, Anár / Inari 2002, ISBN 951-97845-4-3
- Siida: About Siida
- The Sámi Museum - Past and Present in: Jukka Pennanen, Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi (Ed.): Siiddastallan - From Lapp Communities to Modern Sámi Life . Siida Sámi Museum, Anár / Inari 2002, ISBN 951-97845-4-3
- Siida: The Sámi Museum Foundation
- Siida: The History of the Museum
- Metsähallitus: Cooperation Agreements of Metsähallitus ( Memento of the original from June 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.