City fortifications (Rome)

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The city ​​fortifications of the city of Rome have existed since the Roman royal era .


Servian (black) and Aurelian walls (red)

The first settlement center, known as Roma quadrata , only had city ​​walls and other fortifications in exposed places . The around 500 BC The Servian Wall was erected in the 3rd century BC and was Rome's first comprehensive city ​​fortification , which was built after the Celtic invasion of the year 390 BC. Was renewed and strengthened. Further developments induced Emperor Aurelian 270 to build a new city wall, the Aurelian Wall , which is still almost completely preserved today. At the beginning of the 5th century, Flavius ​​Honorius integrated the Castel Sant'Angelo into the city's defensive system, reinforced the walls and expanded their gates into small fortifications.

middle Ages

The Saracen attacks of the 9th century prompted Pope Leo IV to protect the Vatican , which was then outside the city with the old Constantinian St. Peter's Basilica, with a new wall, the Leonine Wall . Starting from the Castel Sant'Angelo, it encompassed the Vatican and ended southeast of it on the Tiber . Under Nicholas III. Successful construction of the Passetto di Borgo , which connects the castle with the Vatican.

Modern times

The Sacco di Roma led to a reinforcement and a partial new construction of the Leonine Wall, whereby its northern course changed and included the district of Borgo . The Passetto was then within the walls. Under Urban VIII. Another wall was built along the Gianicolo , with which further settlements to the right of the Tiber were integrated into the defensive system of the city and their western flank beyond the river was better secured. The walls were the scene of battles in the Risorgimento , of which that at Porta Pia led to the end of the Papal States in 1870.

Fortress belt

Between 1877 and 1891 15 fortifications were built around the city of Rome to defend against possible French attacks. Due to the further development of artillery and the urban development of Rome, the facilities soon lost their original function. From 1919 they were only used as barracks or material stores. The systems are two to three kilometers apart and are four to five kilometers from the Aurelian Wall.

The list below starts at Forte Aurelio, west of downtown, and continues clockwise.

Surname construction time Hectares location Current usage
Forte Aurelio 1877-81 5.7 , onVia Aurelia Antica Guardia di Finanza barracks
Forte Boccea 1877-81 7.3 , on Via di Boccea Former military prison
Forte Braschi 1877-81 8.2 , Via della Pineta Sacchetti Headquarters of the Italian foreign intelligence service
Forte Monte Mario 1877-82 8.4 , onMonte Mario military
Forte Trionfale 1882-88 21.0 , on the Roman road of the same name military
Forte antenna 1882-91 2.5 , in theVilla Ada(Antemnae) City of Rome, military
Forte Pietralata 1881-85 25.4 , on theAniene Barracks of the Granatieri di Sardegna
Forte Tiburtino 1880-84 23.8 , onVia Tiburtina military
Forte Prenestino 1880-84 13.4 , on Via Prenestina Alternative cultural center
Forte Casilino 1881-82 3.8 , atCentocelle Airfield Military, other uses planned
Forte Appio 1877-80 16.5 , on theVia Appia Antica military
Forte Ardeatino 1879-82 11.2 , on Via Ardeatina Park, fortress not accessible
Forte Ostiense 1882-84 8.8 , onVia Ostiensis Police office of the Stato
Forte Portuense 1877-81 5.2 , on Via Portuense Forte Portuense Cultural Association
Forte Bravetta 1877-83 10.6 , between Via Portuense and Via Aurelia Memorial to the victims of Nazi fascism


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