City fortifications (Rome)
The first settlement center, known as Roma quadrata , only had city walls and other fortifications in exposed places . The around 500 BC The Servian Wall was erected in the 3rd century BC and was Rome's first comprehensive city fortification , which was built after the Celtic invasion of the year 390 BC. Was renewed and strengthened. Further developments induced Emperor Aurelian 270 to build a new city wall, the Aurelian Wall , which is still almost completely preserved today. At the beginning of the 5th century, Flavius Honorius integrated the Castel Sant'Angelo into the city's defensive system, reinforced the walls and expanded their gates into small fortifications.
The Saracen attacks of the 9th century prompted Pope Leo IV to protect the Vatican , which was then outside the city with the old Constantinian St. Peter's Basilica, with a new wall, the Leonine Wall . Starting from the Castel Sant'Angelo, it encompassed the Vatican and ended southeast of it on the Tiber . Under Nicholas III. Successful construction of the Passetto di Borgo , which connects the castle with the Vatican.
The Sacco di Roma led to a reinforcement and a partial new construction of the Leonine Wall, whereby its northern course changed and included the district of Borgo . The Passetto was then within the walls. Under Urban VIII. Another wall was built along the Gianicolo , with which further settlements to the right of the Tiber were integrated into the defensive system of the city and their western flank beyond the river was better secured. The walls were the scene of battles in the Risorgimento , of which that at Porta Pia led to the end of the Papal States in 1870.
Between 1877 and 1891 15 fortifications were built around the city of Rome to defend against possible French attacks. Due to the further development of artillery and the urban development of Rome, the facilities soon lost their original function. From 1919 they were only used as barracks or material stores. The systems are two to three kilometers apart and are four to five kilometers from the Aurelian Wall.
The list below starts at Forte Aurelio, west of downtown, and continues clockwise.
|Via Aurelia Antica, on
|Guardia di Finanza barracks
|, on Via di Boccea
|Former military prison
|, Via della Pineta Sacchetti
|Headquarters of the Italian foreign intelligence service
|Forte Monte Mario
|Monte Mario, on
|, on the Roman road of the same name
|Villa Ada(Antemnae), in the
|City of Rome, military
|Aniene, on the
|Barracks of the Granatieri di Sardegna
|Via Tiburtina, on
|, on Via Prenestina
|Alternative cultural center
|Centocelle Airfield, at
|Military, other uses planned
|Via Appia Antica, on the
|, on Via Ardeatina
|Park, fortress not accessible
|Via Ostiensis, on
|Police office of the Stato
|, on Via Portuense
|Forte Portuense Cultural Association
|, between Via Portuense and Via Aurelia
|Memorial to the victims of Nazi fascism
- Giorgio Giannini: I forti di Roma. Newton & Compton, Rome 1998. ISBN 978-88-8183-895-0