Tapajos shadow hummingbird
|Tapajos shadow hummingbird|
|Zimmer, JT , 1950|
The tapajos shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis aethopygus ) is a species of bird in the hummingbird family (Trochilidae) that is endemic to Brazil . The stock is on the IUCN as endangered ( Vulnerable estimated). The species is monotypical .
The Tapajos shadow hummingbird reaches a body length of about 9 cm. He is a small hermit with a medium-sized curved beak. The male has brown reins , the cheeks and the ear covers are blackish. A pale over-eye stripe runs over and behind the eye. The top is olive-green with a metallic sheen with reddish borders. The rump and the upper tail-coverts are intensely reddish in color. The flight feathers are dark brownish. The rounded tail is dark brown, the feather shafts reddish. All control springs except the outer ones are white at the base. The margins show a less reddish color distally . The lower cheek line is reddish, the chin white, the throat black but becomes reddish brown towards the neck and chest. The rest of the underside is reddish brown and even more intense on the under tail coverts. The upper beak is black, the lower beak pale yellowish with a small brown tip. The legs are yellowish with black claws. The female differs from the male by the yellow-brown, olive underside with a reddish-brown tint. There are usually some reddish brown fringes on the throat, which gives the throat patch a less dense look. The upper tail ceilings look a little less reddish brown throughout with larger green areas in the middle. The tail looks wedged with longer white spots on the middle tail feathers and reddish brown edges on the outer tail feathers. Fledglings resemble females, but young males develop a little more reddish brown on the underside.
Behavior and nutrition
The tapajos shadow hummingbird gets nectar like other hummingbirds. It probably also feeds on flying insects and spiders.
The singing consists of long, high-pitched sounds that he utters incessantly without a break. He gives this in a frequency of one phrase in about six to eight seconds. A phrase consists of monotonous lines, single tones followed by accelerated ascending tones and ending with two lighter tones. These sound like tsi ... tsi ... tsi..tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-chup-chup .
In early December, a lek was discovered with five active males on it. All were very active for most of the day, with loud shooing and courtship of individual individuals who went to the Lek. Otherwise, its breeding biology has not yet been researched.
distribution and habitat
The Tapajos shadow hummingbird prefers primary forests, but also tolerates protected areas or those that have been destroyed by conflagrations. A lek was discovered in a severely disturbed Terra Firme forest. It can be found near the Rio Tapajós or the Rio Xingu south of the Río Amazonas in north-central Brazil.
The migration behavior of the Tapajos shadow hummingbird has not yet been researched.
Etymology and history of research
The tapajos shadow hummingbird was first described in 1950 by John Todd Zimmer under the scientific name Phaethornis longuemareus aethopyga . The type specimen was collected by Alfonso Maria Olalla (1899–1971) near Caxiricatuba on the Rio Tapajós. In 1827 William Swainson introduced the genus Phaethornis for the eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis superciliosus ( Linnaeus , 1766)), which was later assigned to the dark shadow hummingbird. The term “Phaethornis” is derived from the Greek words “phaethōn Φαέθων ” for “the shining one, the shining one” and “órnis όρνις ” for “bird”. "Aethopygus" is a Greek word formation from "aithos αιθος " for "fire, burning heat" and "-pygos, pygē -πυγος, πυγη " for "-steißig, brürzel, rump". For a time the tapajos shadow hummingbird was considered a hybrid of the barley -throated shadow hummingbird subspecies ( Phaethornis rupurumii amazonicus Hellmayr , 1906) and the red dwarf shadow hummingbird (( Phaethornis ruber ) Linnaeus , 1758).
- Jon Fjeldså, Peter Boesman in: Josep del Hoyo , Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal , David Andrew Christie , Eduardo de Juana: Tapajos Hermit (Phaethornis aethopygus) In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive . Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- Rolf Grantsau : The hummingbirds of Brazil . Expressão e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro 1988, ISBN 978-85-208-0101-7 .
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- John Todd Zimmer: Studies of Peruvian birds. No. 55, The hummingbird genera Doryfera, Glaucis, Threnetes, and Phaethornis . In: American Museum novitates . No. 1449 , 1950, pp. 1–51 ( digitallibrary.amnh.org [PDF; 4.5 MB ]).
- William Swainson: A Synopsis of the Birds discovered in Mexico by W. Bullock, FLS and HS and Mr. William Bullock, jun. In: The Philosophical magazine: or Annals of chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, natural history and general science . tape 1 , no. 85 , 1827, pp. 433-442 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Phaethornis aethopygus inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018.2. Listed by: BirdLife International, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Tapajos Hermit ( Phaethornis aethopygus ) . Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings for Tapajos Hermit (Phaethornis aethopygus) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Tapajos shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis aethopygus ) at Avibase; accessed on February 17, 2019.
- xeno-canto: Sound recordings - Tapajos shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis aethopygus )
- Tapajos shadow hummingbird (Phaethornis aethopygus) in the Encyclopedia of Life . Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- Jon Fjeldså u. a.
- John Todd Zimmer (1950), p. 48.
- William Swainson, p. 441.
- James A. Jobling, p. 301
- James A. Jobling, p. 35