Cuts of pork
The cuts of pork are named and cut differently depending on the region and country, but also according to tradition and era. In general, it is understood to mean the skeletal muscles with adhering or stored fat, connective tissue and stored smaller animal components of the domestic pig , commonly known as pork .
In Germany, the rules of the German Agricultural Society for cutting generally apply . At the same time, the German Nutrition Society has also drawn up rules that differ in terms of their designation and layout. In the GDR , separate TGLs were created for meat cutting. There are also rules of the traditional butcher's trade .
In Germany , Austria and Switzerland, parts 1 and 2 are currently referred to as head and pig head . In the GDR, part 2 was called a fat cheek , currently it is also called a pork cheek . If part 1 is boned , the pig mask is created by peeling off the skin from the skull . Sometimes you separate the pig ears and snout with trunk.
In the case of many pieces of meat, a distinction is made in the designation whether the meat side / outside or the bone side / inside is viewed. In graphical representations, meat parts therefore appear much more separated than in the adult carcass.
The back bacon (3) covers the pork neck (4) under the skin , the pork chop (6 + 7) with the pork fillet (8). Without fillet, the back is called a square in Switzerland . In Austria this term is only used for the pork chop.
The ridge includes the cervical vertebrae and adjoining four thoracic vertebrae with attached flesh, bones, and tissue. In Austria, the part is also referred to as pan roast, in Switzerland as pork neck . But the term pork neck is also established.
The chop extends from the fifth thoracic vertebra to the fifth lumbar vertebra. Depending on the desired incision, it can be deviated from, as the adjacent tissue does not differ significantly. The DLG does not differentiate between parts, while the other nations strictly differentiate.
The front part (6) is called the stick chop . Called Langes Karree in Austria , it is called a piece of cutlet in Switzerland and the GDR .
The back part (7) is called the loin chop . In Austria called Kurzes Karree , possibly as Kurzes Karree with fillet , in Switzerland it is called Nierstück . In the GDR it was called filet chop .
The terms loin or loin (GDR) are also used for pork fillet ( 8) .
Colloquially and in trade, the term pork loin is also established for the boned piece of meat in the chop.
The pork tail (15) is no longer part of the meat that is cut regularly.
The front leg is also ham called. The degree of cutting depends very much on the age and size of the pig. Partly as a whole, it is also broken down into three or four parts. The terms are used differently accordingly. In general, the meat parts are smaller than from the hind leg and are less valued.
In Germany the part is called a pig's bow (11). Deviating from this, pork shoulder is common in southern Germany as well as in Austria and Switzerland . A distinction is made between the leg (GDR) with the front pork leg (13) and pointed leg (14). It is also common to do a dissection in which the leg remains whole and only the pig's paw with the claws is severed. The upper part is in the GDR in addition to the thickness Bugstück and the blade piece divided, said blade or Schäufele are regional designations for the entire shoulder.
In the GDR, a fore-quarter was called a cut made of a bow, breast tip and crest.
The trunk extends from the chest to the pelvis. The fat layer under the skin is called the pork belly (9) and the pork flap (10) is connected to it. Depending on the intended use, they differ in the proportion of muscle meat and fatty tissue. In Switzerland, the entire area is called Schmer .
In Austria the part (5) of the ribs is called pork breast , in the GDR the breast tip was common. Likewise, in Germany, the part of the rib ends in different cuts is also called thick rib . The piece above the rest of the pork belly was called Long Rib in the GDR . Sometimes it remained on the chop above. The abdominal tissue is in Germany as a dewlap called, is partly the ventral lobe identical, but is tailored according to other criteria. In the GDR dewlap and fat layer on the upper hind leg were called fat dewlap , while the abdominal lobes were called thinning .
In the case of the piece of meat (12), the names differ greatly both nationally and regionally. A clear assignment is not possible, only matches can be determined. In Germany the rump is commonly referred to as ham. In Austria the upper part is called Schlögel , the knuckle of pork as a stilt. In the GDR, the pork knuckle was divided into thick leg and knee leg, depending on its size . For details see main article pork leg .
- Germany: piece of ham , shell , nut , bacon , pork knuckle, pointed bone
- Austria: final roast , imperial part ( shell ), nut , frikandeau , stilt
- Switzerland: corner piece , nut , undercut , hoof, round mock, rose piece
- DDR: upper shell , lower shell , nut , hip section , Dick leg, knee leg leg Spitz - plus some that was sacrum counted for the club.
In Germany, the raw material for the production of meat and sausage products with meat parts or meat products has been standardized. This is commonly known as meat sorting. The main reason is the need for consistently high quality, which avoids fluctuations in the product quality. Product liability, calculation requirements and food law also played a role. The varieties are (in Roman numerals):
- SI to S IIIb: Pork with different proportions of fat and tendons
- S IV to SV: pork belly without rind with different fat content
- S Vi: pork cheeks without rind
- S VII: adipose tissue with little meat
- S VIII: back fat without rind
- S IX: Bacon cuts without rind
- SX: soft fat (fat dewlap)
- S XII: boned pig head
- S XII: pig masks
- S XIII: Schwartenzug
- S XIV: rinds
- S XV to S XIX offal (liver, heart, tongue, brain, lungs)
- S XX: pig blood
- S XXI: Flaming
- S XXII: pig kidneys
- Richard Hering: Herings Lexicon of the Kitchen . Internationally recognized reference work for modern and classic cuisine. Ed .: F. Jürgen Herrmann. 25th, expanded edition. Pfanneberg , Haan-Gruiten 1990, ISBN 978-3-8057-0587-5 (first edition: 1907).
- Gerald Rimbach, Jennifer Möhring, Helmut F. Erbersdobler: Food product knowledge for beginners . Gabler Wissenschaftsverlage, 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-04485-4 , p. 76.
- Meat processing. Raw materials, equipment and processes for cutting meat and for producing and preserving meat products. 4th, improved edition. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1978, license number 114–210 / 76/78.
- ↑ Principles for meat and meat products . ( Memento of the original from March 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 294 kB) Butcher's trade
- ↑ Hermann Koch, Martin Fuchs: The manufacture of fine meat and sausage products . 22nd edition. Deutscher Fachverlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-86641-187-6