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Under rating and review refers considerations and findings, to what extent a process or issue , a property of objects or people or ideas with so linkable values matches. Ratings can vary greatly depending on the situation, social environment and people involved.

An alternative to rating is the neutral description. For example, in science there are not only normative but also descriptive approaches / theories; see phenomenology (methodology) .

Ratings can be based

  • on binding agreements (e.g. in the legal system ) and / or
  • largely accepted ideas, e.g. B. in natural law
  • on one's own (practical) experience or on what has been learned (upbringing, tradition / tradition)
  • on individual or social ideals .

Religious communities have a canon of values; he is based u. a. on writings such as the Bible or the Koran or on their interpretation ( exegesis ).

Some assessments are based on measurements , for example in many areas of technology or in sports . Here subjective value judgments and interpretations can lead to an approximately objective picture of what is happening.

Technology and sport

Assessments in the technical area ( materials , devices, methods) are mainly carried out on the basis of measurements or an assessment according to standards or with special test equipment . In addition to general quality criteria, there are properties such as reliability and accuracy , with materials and structures the breaking strength, safety and various aspects of durability , with devices often good usability and attractive design , with measuring devices in addition to precision, properties such as reliability, temperature resistance and calibration .

In competitive sport , ratings are predominantly based on

  • exact time measurement - e.g. B. in running disciplines, bike races or swimming
  • on distance measurements - e.g. B. Jump competitions or shot put
  • or on counts (goals / net throws in football / basketball, mistakes in tennis, etc.)

Assessments in disciplines where style, beauty or fairness play a major role - for example in dance competitions, ice skating or boxing - are less objective .

Cultural history and sciences

In the course of cultural history , value decisions have often become a constitutive element of culture, especially when they determine the attribution of meaning within a larger social system. Conversely, a social culture also consists of passing on assessment criteria or adapting them to the times, as is the case, for example, in the area of human rights , everyday behavior or customs .

The sciences that develop or research the fundamentals of assessment include a.

Standardization and standardization depend on many factors; with them z. B. economic interests and patent issues play a role.

Definitions according to Eisler

According to R.Eisler (dictionary of philosophical terms), the setting of valuing (estimating) [...] consists in the emotionally-immediate or judging (judging) relation of an object to a (real or possible, individual or general) want, need , Purpose. The definition also includes the usefulness for a purposeful will and the need of the assessor for the object to be assessed.
In addition to these subjective evaluation standards , Eisler also names
generally objective (generally valid, recognized) values ​​that are or should be for every equally organized being . He also differentiates between imaginary and real, true values as well as intrinsic and external value . He describes the foundation of value as that for whose sake something is valued . Economic, ethical, aesthetic and other values ​​can stand behind the value judgment. The nature and intensity of the valuation are subject to historical change and are causal factors in the development of culture . Something recognized as unworthy has negative value, not just a lack of value.

See also

Literature and Sources

  • Der neue Brockhaus, 3rd edition (especially Volume V, keywords value ...), Wiesbaden 1960
  • Rudolf Eisler , Dictionary of Philosophical Terms , see keywords value , appreciation etc.
  • HP Dürr, W. Pannenberg et al .: World views . Part III (p.157-212) of God, Man and Science , Pattloch 1997
  • CS Graumann, R. Willig: Value, evaluation, value retention. In: Hans Thomae (ed.): Theories and forms of motivation. Volume 1: Motivation and Emotion. Göttingen 1983, pp. 312-396.