Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird
|Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird|
Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird
|( Linnaeus , 1766)|
The eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis superciliosus ) is a species of bird in the hummingbird family (Trochilidae) found in Venezuela Guyana , Suriname , French Guiana, and Brazil . The IUCN assesses the population as Least Concern (not endangered).
The eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird reaches a body length of about 14 to 15 cm and a weight of 4 to 8 g. It is similar in appearance to the western long-tailed shadow hummingbird . The 40 millimeter long curved beak is black at the top, while the lower part is yellow. The upper part is predominantly brown, with the back tinted bronze-green. The dark back of the eye is delimited by a white stitch under the eye. The color of the lower part is a faded yellow-brown. White stripes adorn the neck. The gradual tail is black with white flecks, with the elongated tail feather being whitish. It has two pale ocher-colored ribbons on the under tail-coverts. In addition, he has a clear throat strip. The female has shorter wings and a slightly less curved beak. Fledglings have light ocher colored borders on the top.
Behavior and nutrition
The Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird feeds on the nectar of various plants such as passion flowers and heliconias . Furthermore, spiders and insects belong to its diet. As a trapliner, it flies regularly in quick succession to very specific, scattered flowers.
The song consists of a continuous series of individual tsik sounds, which it utters with a frequency of 1.6 to 2 tones per second. The male often sings with several conspecifics on a lek and sits on a branch or twig in the thicket. The call at courtship is an explosive, indistinct psit which is often uttered in flight.
distribution and habitat
The Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird prefers to move in the undergrowth of lowland rainforests and adjacent semi-arid forest, forest edges, gallery forest, secondary vegetation , river-near habitats such as river banks, Igapó forest and Váreza landscapes . Reports from Venezuela's mountains range from elevations to sea level and 1,400 meters. It occupies small territories (size: 1 km²), mostly in the vicinity of rivers, which it vigorously defends against other conspecifics.
From south of the Amazon in northern Brazil there are reports of breeding activities from January, June, September and November. North of the Amazon, only September is known as the breeding season. There are breeding reports from June to August for Guyana and from August to October for French Guiana. Gonadal examinations suggest that there will also be reproductive activities in November north of the Amazon and in July and August south of the Amazon. The females build a bowl-shaped nest, which they hang on the top of tree leaves. This is built from moss, seeds and fine threads of various plants and stabilized and fastened with cobwebs. The clutch consists of two eggs. The incubation lasts at least 16 days and is carried out by the female. It sits with its head towards the leaf, stretches its beak upwards or backwards and spreads its tail. The young birds fledge between 21 and 22 days. The chicks have pink skin that turns slightly brownish further back. During the breeding season, the males build courtship areas where several of them hold a singing competition for the females. The best singer has the preferential right to mate with the females present.
Two subspecies have been described:
- Phaethornis superciliosus superciliosus ( Linnaeus , 1766) - The nominate form is common in southern Venezuela, the Guyanas and northern Brazil, north of the Amazon .
- Phaethornis superciliosus muelleri Hellmayr , 1911 - This subspecies occurs in northern Brazil, but only south of the Amazon. The subspecies has a darker throat and chest. In both sexes, the beak is less curved.
Etymology and history of research
Carl von Linné described the Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird under the name Trochilus superciliosus . He named Cayenne as the site . Later the species was assigned to the genus Phaethornis . “Phaethornis” is derived from the Greek words “phaethōn Φαέθων ” for “the shining one, the shining one” and “órnis, όρνις ” for “bird”. The specific epithet »superciliosus« is derived from the Latin »supercilium« for »eyebrow«. »Muelleri« is dedicated to Lorenz Müller (1868–1953), who collected the type specimen in Peixe-Boi in the Brazilian state of Pará .
- Christoph Hinkelmann, Guy Maxwell Kirwan, Peter Boesman in: Josep del Hoyo , Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal , David Andrew Christie , Eduardo de Juana: Long-tailed Hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus) in Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive . Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- Carl von Linné: Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis . 12th edition. tape 1 . Imprensis Direct Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm 1766 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Carl Eduard Hellmayr: Mr. CE Hellmayr forwared descriptions of two new races of Humming-Birds . In: Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club . tape 27 , 1911, pp. 92-93 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Phaethornis superciliosus inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013.2. Listed by: BirdLife International, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Long-tailed Hermit ( Phaethornis superciliosus ) . Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings of Eastern Long-tailed Hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird ( Phaethornis superciliosus ) at Avibase; Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- Phaethornis superciliosus superciliosus in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- xeno-canto: sound recordings - Eastern Long-tailed Hermit ( Phaethornis superciliosus )
- Eastern long-tailed shadow hummingbird (Phaethornis superciliosus) in the Encyclopedia of Life . Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- Christoph Hinkelmann, u. a.
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- Carl von Linné, p. 189
- Carl Eduard Hellmayr, p. 93
- James A. Jobling, p. 301
- James A. Jobling, p. 374