Axis (machine element)
An axis is a machine element that the storage of one or more rotating components such as wheels or rollers is used. "They can stand still so that the machine parts on them rotate, or they can revolve with the machine parts sitting on them. Axles are subjected to bending stress, but do not transmit any torque."
Fixed axes are firmly connected to the machine frame on one or both sides . They are in the majority and are z. B. used in bicycle axles.
Rotating axes are less common. They are connected to self-rotating components and support rotating wheels. The typical example are rotating axles in running wheel axles of railways or planetary gears .
Stub axles and stub axles
The end of an axle that is offset in diameter is called the axle journal . The shoulder serves as an axial stop (running surface) for wheels with sliding bearings or as an assembly stop for roller bearing inner rings in roller bearings.
A stub axle or stub axle is a short axle piece, e.g. B. the one that is used for the independent suspension of a motor vehicle wheel.
Solid and hollow axles
The material inside a solid axle is less stressed than the material on the circumference of the axle. It therefore contributes significantly less to strength. It is not required for a hollow axle . For example, the wheels of sporty bicycles are equipped with lighter hollow axles (which also serve to accommodate a quick release ).
Axles of two-lane vehicles
The definition of the motor vehicle axle includes in the original sense the “continuous rigid connection of the opposing rotatable wheels”, whereby the wheels initially rotated around the axis defined above. Today the arrangement of the wheels on separate wheel carriers ( independent wheel suspension ) is also referred to as an axle .
The number of axles is a distinguishing feature of two-track vehicles : The two-wheeled cart is a single-axle vehicle. A car with four wheels and a car are two axes . Multi-axis is often found in commercial vehicles ( buses , trucks ) and rail vehicles ( railways and trams ).
The sum of all axles of the towing vehicle and / or trailer is often limited by traffic law (for example in the case of road trains ) or by other regulations (for example in the case of freight trains ).
A distinction is made between:
- the position of the axle (front or rear axle ),
- Grouping of axes (single, double or tandem and multiple axes) and
- Kabus, Karlheinz, Rieg, Frank 1955-, Weidermann, Frank 1967-, Engelken, Gerhard, Hackenschmidt, Reinhard 1953-: Decker machine elements . Function, design and calculation . 20th, revised edition. Munich, ISBN 978-3-446-45029-5 .
- Dieter Schramm, Manfred Hiller, Roberto Bardini: Modeling and simulation of the dynamics of motor vehicles . 2nd Edition. Springer Vieweg, 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-33888-5 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Bernd Heißing, Metin Ersoy, Stefan Gies: chassis manual . , Springer, 2013, ISBN 978-3-658-01991-4 , p. 426.
- When counting the wheelsets of rail vehicles, one usually speaks of axles.