Record system

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In his media theory , Friedrich Kittler primarily describes technical devices that are used to store data, but also "the network of techniques and institutions [...] that allow a given culture to address, store and process relevant data" as the writing system .


In terms of media genealogy , Kittler distinguishes between three phases, which he describes as the writing systems 1800 and 1900. The following phase, which one could perhaps call the "writing system 2000" , remained unnamed at Kittler.

Record system 1800

The typographic writing system with the book as the main medium ranges from Johannes Gutenberg's invention (1440/1454) to the end of the 19th century (around 1880). Texts and scores are the only time memories available .

Characteristic are the typical features of the Gutenberg galaxy such as the development of the concepts of authorship and originator , the development of aids such as addressing books by naming the author, design of the title page and pagination as well as mechanization , standardization , normalization and finally the beginning of automation of the processes and Procedures, the change from reading aloud to reading still , the onset of the educational revolution with general literacy , the change in thinking towards linearity , the associated differentiation of the sciences and the development of scientific methodology, the change in language through the development of national languages , which in turn led to the emergence of nation states.

A characteristic and formative feature of the writing system 1800 in particular is the alphabetical monopoly with the authority of authorship, formative personalities such as the "poet prince" Goethe , the pairing of creator narcissism and reader obedience and re-reading.

Record system 1900

Partial media networks from the beginning of the 20th century with the “technical primordial media” such as phonograph and gramophone , kinetoscope or film as well as the typewriter or typewriter and later television , radio , tape and post characterize the writing system 1900 . The alphabetical monopoly is broken, formative branches of science are psychophysics , psychotechnology and physiology , which also produced the first calculated images .

The first possible storage of writing , images and sound heralds the end of the Gutenberg galaxy , which other media theorists started a little later and, for example, as McLuhan galaxy ( Manuel Castells ) or - with an even later beginning - Turing galaxy ( Volker Grassmuck , Wolfgang Coy ).

"Record System 2000"

The possible successor stage is the "total media network on a digital basis" ; through the digitization of any manipulation of the data flows as are modulation , transformation, synchronization , delay , storage , keying , scrambling , scanning and mapping possible.

The computer is becoming the leading medium that integrates everything: "Instead of connecting techniques to people, absolute knowledge runs in an endless loop" . All modern media implode in the computer. There is universal media convergence .

See also


To the Gutenberg galaxy:

At the end of the Gutenberg galaxy:

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Aufschreibesysteme 1800/1900 , p. 519
  2. a b Grammophon Film Typewriter , p. 8