Bacterial culture

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red colonies: Salmonella enterica ,
blue-violet colonies: enterobacteria that cleave β-galactosidase (mainly coliform bacteria )
on Rambach agar

As bacterial culture augmentation is by bacteria called in an appropriate environment. They are created for scientific, technical and diagnostic purposes. Of particular importance are pure cultures , ie cultures in which only one bacteria to clone are and other living organisms can not penetrate from the outside. For this, it is necessary that the culture vessel is either completely closed, also gas-tight, or that gas exchange with the air is only possible with the exclusion of the penetration of microorganisms from outside.

Diagnostic bacterial culture

In medical microbiology , harmful bacteria are to be recognized through cultivation and made available for further analyzes. To do this, samples (for example stool , urine , blood , sputum ) are placed in a liquid culture medium (in a glass vessel) or smeared onto the surface of a "solid" nutrient medium (a gel containing agar , usually in a flat dish, a Petri dish ) and incubated for one to several days at a suitable temperature, usually around 37 ° C (see also nutrient medium ). The bacterial cultures are mostly created and assessed in a specialized medical diagnostic laboratory .

Collections of microorganisms

Bacterial cultures are permanently stored in collections of microorganisms such as the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures . The task of such institutions consists in the maintenance of the described bacterial strains , the cataloging of the strains and the provision of test material for physiological and biochemical investigations. Such collections include u. a. Type strains , i.e. strains that are typical of a newly described species, as well as reference strains for examinations in which the result of a strain must be predictable for quality control (e.g. during susceptibility tests to antibiotics or diagnostic examinations).

Newly described bacterial species should be cultivated in at least two different collections in different countries. If the pure culture of a new bacterial species is not possible, it is not considered to be fully described according to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria . As a preliminary to the final description, the name of the new species should be prefixed with the term Candidatus until it can be cultivated.

The following table gives an overview of important strain collections (collections of bacterial strains) in various countries that are of international importance. In scientific publications on a bacterial species, reference is usually made to a catalog number assigned by the respective institute, for example the specification Micrococcus luteus DSM 20030 stands for the strain of the bacterium stored at the DSMZ under number 20030, which can be traced back to that of Alexander Fleming 1929 as Micrococcus lysodeikticus called bacterial strain.

Important national trunk collections
Abbreviation of the collection Surname place
ATCC American Type Culture Collection USA , in Manassas , Virginia
NCIMB (formerly NCIB and NCMB) National Collection of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria United Kingdom , in Aberdeen , Scotland
NCTC National Collection of Type Cultures, Central Public Health Laboratory United Kingdom , in London
CNCM Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes, Institut Pasteur France , in Paris
CIP Collection de l'Institut Pasteur, Institut Pasteur France , in Paris
LMG BCCM / LMG Belgian Co-ordinated Collections of Microorganismsm, Ghent University Belgium , in Ghent
CBS Netherlands Culture Collection of Bacteria (NCCB), Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) Netherlands , in Utrecht
DSM Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures Germany , in Braunschweig
CCUG Culture Collection, University of Gothenburg Sweden , in Gothenburg
CCM Czech Collection of Microorganisms Czech Republic , in Brno
CGMCC China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences People's Republic of China , in Beijing
JCM Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center Japan , in Tsukuba (Ibaraki)

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: bacterial culture  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Eckhard Bast: Microbiological Methods: An Introduction to Basic Working Techniques . 2nd Edition. Spectrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg / Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-8274-1072-6 , p. 200-202 .
  2. JP Euzéby, BJ Tindall: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an opinion. In: International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. Volume 54, Number 1, January 2004, pp. 293-301, ISSN  1466-5026 . PMID 14742499 .
  3. ^ JCM On-line Catalog of Strains. In: Website of the Japan Collection of Microorganisms . Retrieved March 30, 2013 .
  4. ^ Jean Euzéby, Aidan C. Parte: Culture collections of prokaryotes (bacteria). In: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature ( LPSN ). Retrieved March 24, 2014 .