Domestic trade policy

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Under domestic trade policy as part of the trade policy all state and non-state are legal standards and measures of economic trade relations between economic entities in domestic trade to understand.


Trade policy is a sub-area of ​​state economic policy and consists of foreign trade and domestic trade policy. The national goal of domestic trade policy is to create framework conditions for successful economic activity among domestic economic entities ( private households , companies and the state with its subdivisions). The state economic policy has to set the framework for trading companies , in particular to secure the existence of the market economy and to protect it from undesirable developments. Internal trade policy, in turn, has to shape internal trade, monitor its structures ( company types and company sizes ) and control internal trade processes with the aim of efficient distribution and allocation of goods and services.

The internal trade policy covers the entire internal trade of a state with goods , services and capital movements .


The Austrian economist Eugen Philippovich von Philippsberg was one of the first to describe domestic trade policy as an "elementary fact of the economy" in 1899. He already made a clear distinction between foreign trade and domestic trade policy: “It has often been assumed that foreign trade and domestic trade are essentially the same. One like the other exhibits entrepreneurship and capital expenditures to buy where you can buy cheap, to sell where you can sell high. In one case this happens in the different parts of the same state, in the other in areas that belong to different states. ” Julius Hirsch dealt with domestic trade policy for the first time in 1918. However, in 1925 he still lacked a definition of the term domestic trade policy. Adolf Lampe worked all his life on research on domestic trade and domestic trade policy. In 1933 he published an essay on this in Adolf Weber's book. Between 1935 and 1940, Lampe worked on the armaments and war economy for an expert opinion.

Erich Hoppmann emphasized in 1959 that it was the task of theoretical domestic trade policy to assess whether the use of the instruments was consistent and to assess their economic implications. In the same year Robert Nieschlag's standard work was published, which described the tasks and goals of German domestic trade policy. In 1977 Werner Oehler dealt with the instruments and goals of state internal trade policy. In 1979, Erwin Dichtl still considered a definition of “not opportune”. According to Bruno Tietz (1986), state internal trade policy endeavors to “shape trade in accordance with the overriding economic policy goals”.


Hans-Otto Schenk differentiates between three types of internal trade policy:

  • Macro-internal trade policy covers the entirety of all trading companies in a state,
  • Meso-EU trade policy : these include levels of trade , industries or associations of trade and
  • Micro-internal trade policy : comprises individual trading companies, sizes and types of companies.

These levels differ in the degree of aggregation . Schenk calls the trading companies, trading levels, etc. "political objects".


Internal trade policy has instruments at its disposal to fulfill its tasks. This includes legislation through legal norms ( laws , ordinances ), especially in the areas of trade law , commercial law , market regulation , tax law , competition law or business law right up to the closing time . Fields of action are regulatory policy , structural policy and process policy . These areas of law regulate market entry and exit , corporate issues , market developments , market behavior , qualifications of companies and their employees, corporate taxation or the legal basis for certain transactions .

In addition to these legal regulations, national trade customs also have an impact on domestic trade. These are binding rules that are based on a uniform, uniform and voluntary actual practice in commercial transactions by merchants , which has formed within a reasonable period of time for comparable business transactions and which is based on a uniform understanding of the parties involved. These include commercial clauses such as the “ ex works ” agreement .

Economic order

There is a domestic trade policy in every economic system , regardless of whether it is a market economy or a central administrative system. In the latter case, the state's intervention threshold in the managed national economy is reached much more quickly through state intervention than in a market economy system that generally propagates free trade .


Individual evidence

  1. Krishan von Moeller, Market Processes in the Distribution Industry , 1995, p. 47
  2. ^ Robert Nieschlag, Internal Trade and Internal Trade Policy , Volume 4, 1980, p. 254
  3. Michael Olsson / Dirk Piekenbrock, Compact Lexicon Environmental and Economic Policy , 1998, p. 56
  4. Eugen Philippovich von Philippsberg, Basic Plan of Political Economy, Volume 2: Economics , 1899, p. 334
  5. ^ Julius Hirsch, Organization and Forms of Trade and State Internal Trade Policy, in: GdS Abt. V Part 1, 1918, pp. 39–235
  6. Julius Hirsch, Modern Commerce, Its Organization and Forms and State Internal Trade Policy , 1925, p. 293 ff.
  7. Adolf Lampe, Internal Trade and Internal Trade Policy , in: Adolf Weber, Volkswirtschaftslehre, Volume 2: Trade and Transport Policy, 1933, pp. 1 ff.
  8. ^ Adolf Lampe, On the systematic of domestic trade economic problems , 1936, p. 1 ff.
  9. Erich Hoppmann, Internal Trade and Internal Trade Policy , 1959, p. 72
  10. ^ Robert Nieschlag, Internal Trade and Internal Trade Policy , Volume 4, 1959, pp. 254 f.
  11. Werner Oehler, internal trade policy , in: Eduard Mändle (Ed.), Practical Economic Policy, 1977, p. 143 ff.
  12. Erwin Dichtl, Basic Features of Internal Trade Policy , 1979, p. 1
  13. Bruno Tietz, Internal Trade Policy , 1986, p. 22
  14. Hans-Otto Schenk, Marktwirtschaftslehre des Handels , 1991, p. 496
  15. ^ Krishan von Moeller, Market Processes in the Distribution Industry , 1995, p. 48
  16. ^ Krishan von Moeller, Market Processes in the Distribution Economy , 1995, p. 49
  17. ^ BGH, judgment of May 2, 1984, Az .: VIII ZR 38/83 = BGH WM 1984, 1000