Earl of Norfolk
The title was first awarded in 1070 by Wilhelm I to his Anglo-Breton henchman Ralph de Gaël , an ancestor of the Montfort-Laval family . It is unclear whether his father Ralph Stalre (before 1011-1069), the former Dapifer of King Edward the Confessor , was raised in 1067 by William I to Earl. In 1075 he participated Ralph de Gaël in the unsuccessful uprising of the counts , which is why he was stripped of the title and lost his lands in England. He later retired to Brittany, where he was Lord of Gaël and later also Lord of Montfort-sur-Meu .
Around 1141 he was given a second title to Hugh Bigod of the House of Bigod . The title expired with the childless death of his great-great-grandson, the 5th Earl in 1306. The 4th Earl was related in the female line to the Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke and inherited the privilege of his office as Marshall of Pembroke on his death in 1245 England , this has since remained closely linked to the Earls of Norfolk and is still worn today by the Earl and Dukes of Norfolk.
In 1312 the title was recreated for Thomas of Brotherton , a younger son of King Edward I of the Plantagenet family . The title could also be inherited in the female line. On his death, the title passed to his daughter Margaret as 2nd Countess, who was raised to the Duchess of Norfolk on September 29, 1397 for life . At the same time, their grandson Thomas Mowbray ( House Mowbray ) was raised to the hereditary Duke of Norfolk , who in 1399 inherited Margaret as 3rd Earl of Norfolk. The Duke title expired on January 14, 1476 with the death of his great-grandson, the 4th Dukes , the Earldom on November 19, 1481 with the death of his eight-year-old daughter, the 8th Countess .
The current title was given in the fourth bestowal on June 6, 1644 to Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel , 4th Earl of Surrey, of the House of Howard . He was a grandson of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk , who in 1572 had the title Duke of Norfolk, newly created in 1483, revoked for high treason. His grandson, the 20th Earl of Arundel and 3rd Earl of Norfolk, obtained the restoration of the Duketititel for him as 5th Duke in 1660. The Earldom of Norfolk has since been a subordinate title of the respective duke. Today's title holder has been Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk as 16th Earl of Norfolk since 2002 .
List of the Earls of Norfolk
Earls of Norfolk, first bestowal (1070)
- Ralph de Gaël, 1st Earl of Norfolk († 1097) (title forfeited 1075)
Earls of Norfolk, second bestowal (1141)
- Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1095–1177)
- Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk († 1221)
- Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk († 1225)
- Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk († 1270)
- Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk († 1306)
Earls of Norfolk, third bestowal (1312)
- Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1300-1338)
- Margaret Brotherton, Duchess of Norfolk , 2nd Countess of Norfolk († 1399)
- Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk , 3rd Earl of Norfolk (1365-1399) (Dukedom forfeited 1399)
- Thomas Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk (1385-1405)
- John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk , 5th Earl of Norfolk (1392–1432) (Dukedom restored 1425)
- John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk , 6th Earl of Norfolk (1415–1461)
- John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk , 7th Earl of Norfolk (1444–1476)
- Anne Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk (1472–1481)
Earls of Norfolk, fourth bestowal (1644)
- Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel , 1st Earl of Norfolk (1585–1646)
- Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel , 2nd Earl of Norfolk (1608–1652)
- Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk , 3rd Earl of Norfolk (1627–1677)
- Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk , 4th Earl of Norfolk (1628–1684)
- Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk , 5th Earl of Norfolk (1655–1701)
- Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk , 6th Earl of Norfolk (1683–1732)
- Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk , 7th Earl of Norfolk (1685–1777)
- Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk , 8th Earl of Norfolk (1720–1786)
- Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk , 9th Earl of Norfolk (1746–1815)
- Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk , 10th Earl of Norfolk (1765–1842)
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk , 11th Earl of Norfolk (1791-1856)
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk , 12th Earl of Norfolk (1815-1860)
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk , 13th Earl of Norfolk (1847–1917)
- Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk , 14th Earl of Norfolk (1908–1975)
- Miles Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk , 15th Earl of Norfolk (1915–2002)
- Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk , 16th Earl of Norfolk (born 1956)
The heir ( Heir apparent ) is the son of the current title holder Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (* 1987).
- Auguste le Prévost: Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ . Julien Renouard, Paris 1845. Volume II, Book IV, VII, p. 221.